Ankle osteoarthritis: comprehensive review and treatment algorithm proposal.


Ankle osteoarthritis (OA) is much less frequent than knee or hip OA, but it can be equally disabling, greatly affecting the quality of life of the patients. Approximately 80% of ankle OA is post-traumatic, mainly secondary to malleolar fractures, being another of the main causes untreated in chronic instability. The average age of the patient affected by ankle OA is around 50 years, being therefore active patients and in working age who seek to maintain mobility and remain active. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of the conservative, medical, and surgical treatment of ankle OA. Initial conservative treatment is effective and should be attempted in any stage of OA. From a pharmacological point of view, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and intra-articular infiltrations can produce temporary relief of symptoms. After the failure of conservative-medical treatment, two large groups of surgical treatment have been described: joint-preserving and joint-sacrificing procedures. In the early stages, only periarticular osteotomies have enough evidence to recommend in ankle OA with malalignment. Both ankle arthrodesis and ankle replacement can produce satisfactory functional results if correctly indicated in the final stages of the disease. Finally, the authors propose a global treatment algorithm that can aid in the decision-making process.





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Publication Info

Herrera-Pérez, Mario, Victor Valderrabano, Alexandre L Godoy-Santos, César de César Netto, David González-Martín and Sergio Tejero (2022). Ankle osteoarthritis: comprehensive review and treatment algorithm proposal. EFORT open reviews, 7(7). pp. 448–459. 10.1530/eor-21-0117 Retrieved from

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