Telemedicine cardiovascular risk reduction in veterans: The CITIES trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:Comprehensive programs addressing tailored patient self-management and pharmacotherapy may reduce barriers to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. METHODS:This is a 2-arm (clinical pharmacist specialist-delivered, telehealth intervention and education control) randomized controlled trial including Veterans with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia. Primary outcome was Framingham CVD risk score at 6 and 12 months, with systolic blood pressure; diastolic blood pressure; total cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein; high-density lipoprotein; body mass index; and, for those with diabetes, HbA1c as secondary outcomes. RESULTS:Among 428 Veterans, 50% were African American, 85% were men, and 33% had limited health literacy. Relative to the education control group, the clinical pharmacist specialist-delivered intervention did not show a reduction in CVD risk score at 6 months (-1.8, 95% CI -3.9 to 0.3; P = .10) or 12 months (-0.3, 95% CI -2.4 to 1.7; P = .74). No differences were seen in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or low-density lipoprotein at 6 or 12 months. We did observe a significant decline in total cholesterol at 6 months (-7.0, 95% CI -13.4 to -0.6; P = .03) in the intervention relative to education control group. Among patients in the intervention group, 34% received at least 5 of the 12 planned intervention calls and were considered "compliers." A sensitivity analysis of the "complier average causal effect" of intervention compared to control showed a mean difference in CVD risk score reduction of 5.7 (95% CI -12.0 to 0.7) at 6 months and -1.7 (95% CI -7.6 to 4.8) at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:Despite increased access to pharmacist resources, we did not observe significant improvements in CVD risk for patients randomized to the intervention compared to education control over 12 months. However, the intervention may have positive impact among those who actively participate, particularly in the short term.

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Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1016/j.ahj.2018.02.002

Publication Info

Bosworth, Hayden B, Maren K Olsen, Felicia McCant, Karen M Stechuchak, Susanne Danus, Matthew J Crowley, Karen M Goldstein, Leah L Zullig, et al. (2018). Telemedicine cardiovascular risk reduction in veterans: The CITIES trial. American heart journal, 199. pp. 122–129. 10.1016/j.ahj.2018.02.002 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29884.

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Scholars@Duke

Bosworth

Hayden Barry Bosworth

Professor in Population Health Sciences

Dr. Bosworth is a health services researcher and Deputy Director of the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT)  at the Durham VA Medical Center. He is also Vice Chair of Education and Professor of Population Health Sciences. He is also a Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Nursing at Duke University Medical Center and Adjunct Professor in Health Policy and Administration at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests comprise three overarching areas of research: 1) clinical research that provides knowledge for improving patients’ treatment adherence and self-management in chronic care; 2) translation research to improve access to quality of care; and 3) eliminate health care disparities. 

Dr. Bosworth is the recipient of an American Heart Association established investigator award, the 2013 VA Undersecretary Award for Outstanding Achievement in Health Services Research (The annual award is the highest honor for VA health services researchers), and a VA Senior Career Scientist Award. In terms of self-management, Dr. Bosworth has expertise developing interventions to improve health behaviors related to hypertension, coronary artery disease, and depression, and has been developing and implementing tailored patient interventions to reduce the burden of other chronic diseases. These trials focus on motivating individuals to initiate health behaviors and sustaining them long term and use members of the healthcare team, particularly pharmacists and nurses. He has been the Principal Investigator of over 30 trials resulting in over 400 peer reviewed publications and four books. This work has been or is being implemented in multiple arenas including Medicaid of North Carolina, private payers, The United Kingdom National Health System Direct, Kaiser Health care system, and the Veterans Affairs.

Areas of Expertise: Health Behavior, Health Services Research, Implementation Science, Health Measurement, and Health Policy

Olsen

Maren Karine Olsen

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Health services research, longitudinal data methods, missing data methods

Crowley

Matthew Janik Crowley

Associate Professor of Medicine

Diabetes, Hypertension, Health Services Research

Goldstein

Karen M. Goldstein

Associate Professor of Medicine

Dr. Goldstein's research interests include women's health, cardiovascular risk reduction, evidence synthesis methodology and peer support.

Zullig

Leah L Zullig

Professor in Population Health Sciences

Leah L. Zullig, PhD, MPH is a health services researcher and an implementation scientist. She is a Professor in the Duke Department of Population Health Sciences and an investigator with the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT) at the Durham Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Dr. Zullig’s overarching research interests address three domains: improving cancer care delivery and quality; promoting cancer survivorship and chronic disease management; and improving medication adherence. Throughout these three area of foci Dr. Zullig uses an implementation science lens with the goal of providing equitable care for all by implementing evidence-based practices in a variety of health care environments. She has authored over 150 peer-reviewed publications. 

Dr. Zullig completed her BS in Health Promotion, her MPH in Public Health Administration, and her PhD in Health Policy.

Areas of expertise: Implementation Science, Health Measurement, Health Policy, Health Behavior, Telehealth, and Health Services Research

Oddone

Eugene Zaverio Oddone

Professor Emeritus of Medicine

I am a health services researcher whose primary research interests are: 1) evaluating the effectiveness of primary care with an emphasis on chronic disease, 2) assessing the reasons and testing interventions to reduce racial variation in access the health care and utilization of health services, 3) determining appropriate interventions to improve blood pressure control for hypertensive patients treated in primary care. I have research expertise in racial variation, blood pressure control, disease management, and tele-medicine. I also have methodologic expertise in designing and testing health services interventions in multi-site clinical trials.

Key words: primary care, racial variation, quality of care, hypertension


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