A Third Order Numerical Method for Doubly Periodic Electromegnetic Scattering

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We here developed a third-order accurate numerical method for scattering of 3D electromagnetic waves by doubly periodic structures. The method is an intuitively simple numerical scheme based on a boundary integral formulation. It involves smoothing the singular Green's functions in the integrands and finding correction terms to the resulting smooth integrals. The analytical method is based on the singular integral methods of J. Thomas Beale, while the scattering problem is motivated by the 2D work of Stephanos Venakides, Mansoor Haider, and Stephen Shipman. The 3D problem was done with boundary element methods by Andrew Barnes. We present a method that is both more straightforward and more accurate. In solving these problems, we have used the M"{u}ller integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equations, since it is a Fredholm integral equation of the second kind and is well-posed. M"{u}ller derived his equations for the case of a compact scatterer. We outline the derivation and adapt it to a periodic scatterer. The periodic Green's functions found in the integral equation contain singularities which make it difficult to evaluate them numerically with accuracy. These functions are also very time consuming to evaluate numerically. We use Ewald splitting to represent these functions in a way that can be computed rapidly.We present a method of smoothing the singularity of the Green's function while maintaining its periodicity. We do local analysis of the singularity in order to identify and eliminate the largest sources of error introduced by this smoothing. We prove that with our derived correction terms, we can replace the singular integrals with smooth integrals and only introduce a error that is third order in the grid spacing size. The derivation of the correction terms involves transforming to principal directions using concepts from differential geometry. The correction terms are necessarily invariant under this transformation and depend on geometric properties of the scatterer such as the mean curvature and the differential of the Gauss map. Able to evaluate the integrals to a higher order, we implement a \mbox{GMRES} algorithm to approximate solutions of the integral equation. From these solutions, M"{u}ller's equations allow us to compute the scattered fields and transmission coefficients. We have also developed acceleration techniques that allow for more efficient computation.We provide results for various scatterers, including a test case for which exact solutions are known. The implemented method does indeed converge with third order accuracy. We present results for which the method successfully resolves Wood's anomaly resonances in transmission.






Nicholas, Michael J (2007). A Third Order Numerical Method for Doubly Periodic Electromegnetic Scattering. Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/383.


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