Seasonal variations in air pollution particle-induced inflammatory mediator release and oxidative stress.


Health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) show seasonal variations. We hypothesized that these heterogeneous effects may be attributed partly to the differences in the elemental composition of PM. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were exposed to equal mass of coarse [PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 microm (PM(2.5-10)], fine (PM(2.5)), and ultrafine (PM(<0.1)) ambient PM from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, during October 2001 (fall) and January (winter), April (spring), and July (summer) 2002. Production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured. Coarse PM was more potent in inducing cytokines, but not ROSs, than was fine or ultrafine PM. In AMs, the October coarse PM was the most potent stimulator for IL-6 release, whereas the July PM consistently stimulated the highest ROS production measured by dichlorofluorescein acetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR). In NHBE cells, the January and the October PM were consistently the strongest stimulators for IL-8 and ROS, respectively. The July PM increased only ROS measured by DHR. PM had minimal effects on chemiluminescence. Principal-component analysis on elemental constituents of PM of all size fractions identified two factors, Cr/Al/Si/Ti/Fe/Cu and Zn/As/V/Ni/Pb/Se, with only the first factor correlating with IL-6/IL-8 release. Among the elements in the first factor, Fe and Si correlated with IL-6 release, whereas Cr correlated with IL-8 release. These positive correlations were confirmed in additional experiments with PM from all 12 months. These results indicate that elemental constituents of PM may in part account for the seasonal variations in PM-induced adverse health effects related to lung inflammation.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Becker, Susanne, Lisa A Dailey, Joleen M Soukup, Steven C Grambow, Robert B Devlin and Yuh-Chin T Huang (2005). Seasonal variations in air pollution particle-induced inflammatory mediator release and oxidative stress. Environmental health perspectives, 113(8). pp. 1032–1038. 10.1289/ehp.7996 Retrieved from

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Steven C. Grambow

Associate Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

I am an academic statistician with a focus on educational leadership and administration, teaching, mentoring, and collaborative clinical research. I serve as the director of multiple education programs, both formal degree programs and certificate-based training programs. I also provide administrative oversight of multiple graduate degree programs and educational initiatives focusing on clinical and translational science workforce development at the student, staff, and faculty levels.

I have many years of experience with in-person and online teaching across a variety of teaching venues (formal degree programs, domestic and international certificate-based training programs, faculty development seminars, residency/fellowship training programs) and health sciences audiences (medical students, residents, fellows, faculty, and other health professionals), including more than 21 years as a statistics course director in the Duke Clinical Research Training Program.

As a collaborative scientist I have experience with a broad range of clinical research areas and clinical research designs, including observational studies, epidemiology investigations, and randomized clinical trials, including those utilizing web, mobile, and telemedicine-based health behavior interventions. I have collaborated on projects spanning a broad range of clinical research areas, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), prostate cancer, quality of colorectal cancer care, osteoarthritis, lifestyle modification through weight loss, CVD risk reduction through hypertension control, smoking cessation, and substance abuse recovery.


Yuh-Chin Tony Huang

Professor of Medicine

Closed loop ventilation
Environmental medicine
Oxidative lung injury
Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI and regional lung function

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