Cumulative Effects on the National Historic Landmark District Since 1960

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The United States Military Academy, located at West Point, New York is an American icon. It was the first military academy to be established (1802), and became a National Historic Landmark District in 1960. This designation occurred six years before the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 was created. Three years later, in 1969, the National Historic Policy Act was signed into law. Beginning with the designation as a National Historic Landmark District, the cumulative effects of changes to the academy can be divided into three distinct periods: 1960-1969; 1969-1996; and post 1996. The first period pre-dated the National Environmental Policy Act, where new construction, rehabilitation, and demolition underwent only limited environmental review. The second period, after the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act, held any changes to the Landmark District to a higher (stricter) standard. The third period, which began in 1996, was an era where specific procedures and methodologies were established to carry out the National Environmental Policy Act. A detailed environmental program was developed during this period to assess all proposed changes (new construction, rehabilitation and demolition) to the Landmark District, no matter how small. In addition to the environmental effects, the visual effects on the Landmark District were also evaluated. This paper describes how the cumulative impact of new construction, rehabilitation and demolition since 1960 has affected the Landmark District.







Bjornsen, Alan (2015). Cumulative Effects on the National Historic Landmark District Since 1960. Retrieved from

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