Minimally Invasive Surgery for Mild-to-Moderate Adult Spinal Deformities: Impact on Intensive Care Unit and Hospital Stay.



To compare circumferential minimally invasive (cMIS) versus open surgeries for mild-to-moderate adult spinal deformity (ASD) with regard to intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS).


A retrospective review of 2 multicenter ASD databases with 426 ASD (sagittal vertical axis <6 cm) surgery patients with 4 or more fusion levels and 2-year follow-up was conducted. ICU stay, LOS, and estimated blood loss (EBL) were compared between open and cMIS surgeries.


Propensity matching resulted in 88 patients (44 cMIS, 44 open). cMIS were older (61 vs. 53 years, P = 0.005). Mean levels fused were 6.5 in cMIS and 7.1 in open (P = 0.368). Preoperative lordosis was higher in open than in cMIS (42.7° vs. 40.9°, P = 0.016), and preoperative visual analog score back pain was greater in open than in cMIS (7 vs. 6.2, P = 0.033). Preoperative and postoperative spinopelvic parameters and coronal Cobb angles were not different. EBL was 534 cc in cMIS and 1211 cc in open (P < 0.001). Transfusions were less in cMIS (27.3% vs. 70.5%, P < 0.001). ICU stay was 0.6 days for cMIS and 1.2 days for open (P = 0.009). Hospital LOS was 7.9 days for cMIS versus 9.6 for open (P = 0.804).


For patients with mild-to-moderate ASD, cMIS surgery had a significantly lower EBL and shorter ICU stay. Major and minor complication rates were lower in cMIS patients than open patients. Overall LOS was shorter in cMIS patients, but did not reach statistical significance.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Chou, Dean, Gregory Mundis, Michael Wang, Kai-Ming Fu, Christopher Shaffrey, David Okonkwo, Adam Kanter, Robert Eastlack, et al. (2019). Minimally Invasive Surgery for Mild-to-Moderate Adult Spinal Deformities: Impact on Intensive Care Unit and Hospital Stay. World neurosurgery, 127. pp. e649–e655. 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.237 Retrieved from

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Christopher Ignatius Shaffrey

Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery

I have more than 25 years of experience treating patients of all ages with spinal disorders. I have had an interest in the management of spinal disorders since starting my medical education. I performed residencies in both orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery to gain a comprehensive understanding of the entire range of spinal disorders. My goal has been to find innovative ways to manage the range of spinal conditions, straightforward to complex. I have a focus on managing patients with complex spinal disorders. My patient evaluation and management philosophy is to provide engaged, compassionate care that focuses on providing the simplest and least aggressive treatment option for a particular condition. In many cases, non-operative treatment options exist to improve a patient’s symptoms. I have been actively engaged in clinical research to find the best ways to manage spinal disorders in order to achieve better results with fewer complications.

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