Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection.

Abstract

Accurate HIV-1 incidence estimation is critical to the success of HIV-1 prevention strategies. Current assays are limited by high false recent rates (FRRs) in certain populations and a short mean duration of recent infection (MDRI). Dynamic early HIV-1 antibody response kinetics were harnessed to identify biomarkers for improved incidence assays. We conducted retrospective analyses on circulating antibodies from known recent and longstanding infections and evaluated binding and avidity measurements of Env and non-Env antigens and multiple antibody forms (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgG3, IgG4, dIgA, and IgM) in a diverse panel of 164 HIV-1-infected participants (clades A, B, C). Discriminant function analysis identified an optimal set of measurements that were subsequently evaluated in a 324-specimen blinded biomarker validation panel. These biomarkers included clade C gp140 IgG3, transmitted/founder clade C gp140 IgG4 avidity, clade B gp140 IgG4 avidity, and gp41 immunodominant region IgG avidity. MDRI was estimated at 215 day or alternatively, 267 days. FRRs in untreated and treated subjects were 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Thus, computational analysis of dynamic HIV-1 antibody isotype and antigen interactions during infection enabled design of a promising HIV-1 recency assay for improved cross-sectional incidence estimation.

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Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1172/jci.insight.94355

Publication Info

Seaton, Kelly E, Nathan A Vandergrift, Aaron W Deal, Wes Rountree, John Bainbridge, Eduard Grebe, David A Anderson, Sheetal Sawant, et al. (2017). Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection. JCI insight, 2(24). 10.1172/jci.insight.94355 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/22001.

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Scholars@Duke

Shen

Xiaoying Shen

Associate Professor in Surgery

Dr. Shen is an Associate Director and Deputy of the Laboratory for HIV and COVID-19 Vaccine Research & Development in the Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Sciences at Duke University Medical Center. Her research interest focuses on the humoral immune response following virus infection or vaccination. During the past decade, she has worked intensively on the specificity and breadth of binding antibody responses against HIV.

Dr. Shen’s team developed assays and analytical tools for a peptide microarray assay for finely mapping of HIV-1 cross-subtype linear epitopes targeted by antibody responses in human specimens as well as animal models, and adopted a multiplex binding antibody assay for evaluating binding antibody responses. With these technologies, her team evaluated various clinical HIV-1 vaccine studies and NHP studies. Building upon the data generated by her team and other collaborators, Dr. Shen works with bioinformatics and biostatistics personnel on deciphering immune correlates in both human clinical trials and nonhuman primate studies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, her team expanded their research to SARS-COV-2 antibody responses.

In 2021, Dr. Shen became the Deputy Director of the Laboratory for HIV and COVID-19 Vaccine Research & Development, alongside Laboratory Director Dr. Montefiori.  The laboratory established a lentivirus-based pseudovirus SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay that has been FDA-approved. The laboratory is assessing neutralizing antibody responses for multiple phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trials. In addition to supporting clinical trials, the lab has a strong focus on characterizing SARS-CoV-2 variants for their neutralizing susceptibility and potential to escape from vaccine-elicited immune responses.

Meanwhile, Dr. Shen’s team remains highly active in HIV-1 vaccine research, evaluating neutralizing responses in preclinical and clinical HIV vaccine trials as a core laboratory for multiple networks including the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN), the Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD) funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as well as the NIH Nonhuman Primate Core Humoral Immunology Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine which Dr. Shen directs.

Tomaras

Georgia Doris Tomaras

Professor in Surgery

Dr. Georgia Tomaras is a tenured Professor of Surgery, Professor of Immunology, Professor of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology (AAM) and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).  Dr. Tomaras is Co-Director of the Center for Human Systems Immunology (CHSI) Duke University and Director of the Duke Center for AIDS Research (CFAR). Her national and international leadership roles include: Executive Management Team (EMT) leader and mPI for the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN); Director of Lab Sciences (HVTN); and Chair of NIH Vaccine Research Center (VRC) Board of Scientific Counselors. Her prior leadership roles include serving as the Director of Research, Duke Human Vaccine Institute (DHVI); Director of the DHVI Training Program; Associate Director of DHVI Research; Co-Director of the Interdisciplinary Research Training Program in AIDS (IRTPA) Duke; Chair of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee (AVRS), and Advisory Counsel member of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Tomaras’ primary research focus is deciphering mechanisms of protective human immunity and identification of immune correlates of protection to further development of effective vaccines against infectious diseases.  

 


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