Multiple Approaches to Novel GSD Ia Therapies

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2016

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Abstract

Glycogen storage disease type Ia is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit, encoded in humans by G6PC. G6Pase dephosphorylates glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in the liver to generate glucose that can be shuttled to the bloodstream to maintain normoglycemia. Patients with GSD Ia typically present at 6 months of age with sever hypoglycemia, which is lethal if untreated. The current treatment is a strict dietary regimen in which children must be fed every 2 hours overnight or given nasogastric tube feeding, and adults must consume uncooked cornstarch around the clock to maintain normal blood sugar levels. This treatment maintains survival but fails to prevent other symptoms related to metabolism of the excess G6P, and patients develop hepatic adenomas that may become hepatocellular carcinoma later in life, in addition to progressive renal complications.

To overcome the problems persisting during dietary therapy, the Koeberl lab has sought to develop gene therapy approaches that use adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to replace the G6pase activity, restoring normoglycemia and normal metabolic processes. However, the vast majority of AAV-delivered genetic material exists as episomes that do not replicate as cells divide, so the effects of AAV gene therapy on GSD Ia mouse and dog models have proven temporary. We hypothesized that driving integration of therapeutic vector genomes into an affected individual's genome would improve beneficial effects' longevity.

We tested several approaches to accomplish this, and have found positive effects using a zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) that targets the mouse safe harbor ROSA26 locus to induce homologous recombination of the G6PC donor vector into the mouse genome. We were able to see an improvement in mouse survival to 8 months of age, an increase in G6Pase activity at 3 months of age, and a decrease in glycogen accumulation at 3 months of age, when the ZFN vector is administered alongside the G6PC vector, compared with mice that received the G6PC vector alone.

We have also taken an alternative approach to overcoming the long-term complications of the current dietary treatment, which would augment rather than replace the current treatment. We have examined several drugs known to induce autophagy in other disease models or cell culture systems, to determine if we could manipulate autophagic activity in G6PC knockdown hepatocytes or GSD Ia mice. We have found positive results using rapamycin, a well-studied MTOR inhibitor, in mice and cells, and have screened several other drugs as well, finding positive effects for bezafibrate, mifepristone, carbamazepin, and lithium chloride, in terms of lipid reduction (which accumulates as a symptom of GSD Ia) and/or LC3-II enhancement, which is reduced in GSD Ia due to downregulation of autophagy during G6P accumulation.

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Landau, Dustin James (2016). Multiple Approaches to Novel GSD Ia Therapies. Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13358.

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