Evaluation of Five International HBV Treatment Guidelines: Recommendation for Resource-Limited Developing Countries Based on the National Study in Nepal.


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infects the liver, causing cirrhosis and cancer. In developed countries, five international guidelines have been used to make a decision for the management of patients with chronic HBV infection. In this review, since the guidelines were established by clinical and epidemiological data of developed countries, we aimed to evaluate whether (1) HBV patient profiles of developing countries are similar to developed countries, and (2) which guideline can be applicable to resource-limited developing countries. First, as an example of the most recent data of HBV infections among developing countries, we evaluated the national HBV viral load study in Nepal, which were compared with the data from other developing countries. In Nepal, the highest number of patients had viral loads of 20-2000 IU/mL (36.7%) and belonged to the age group of 21-30 years; HBV epidemiology in Nepal, based on the viral loads, gender, and age groups was similar to those of not only other developing countries but also developed countries. Next, we reviewed five international HBV treatment guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL), and Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL). All guidelines require the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for decision making. Although four guidelines recommend elastography to assess liver cirrhosis, the WHO guideline alternatively recommends using the aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), which is inexpensive and conducted routinely in most hospitals. Therefore, in resource-limited developing countries like Nepal, we recommend the WHO guideline for HBV treatment based on the viral load, ALT, and APRI information.





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Publication Info

Khadka, Sundar, Roshan Pandit, Subhash Dhital, Jagat Bahadur Baniya, Surendra Tiwari, Bimal Shrestha, Sanjeet Pandit, Fumitaka Sato, et al. (2020). Evaluation of Five International HBV Treatment Guidelines: Recommendation for Resource-Limited Developing Countries Based on the National Study in Nepal. Pathophysiology : the official journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology, 27(1). pp. 3–13. 10.3390/pathophysiology27010002 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/27410.

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Sundar Khadka

Postdoctoral Associate

Postdoctoral Research Associate, Shinohara laboratory

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