Carbon/Metal  Oxide  Composites  and  Their  Application  in  Lithium-­Ion  Batteries

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2013

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Abstract

The  first  chapter  introduces  the  background  about  energy  storage  and  lithium   ion  battery.  The  concepts  of  graphene,  carbon  nanotube,  and  carbon  aerogel  were   covered  as  well.  Then  powder-­based  metal  oxide-­carbon  composite  materials  and   binder-­free  CNT-­metal  oxide  films  for  lithium  storage  applications  were  further   elaborated.  Finally,  the  significance  of  our  research  was  summarized.  

The  second  chapter  is  about  freestanding  and  highly  conductive   Fe3O4/Graphene/CNT  film  as  lithium-­ion  battery  anodes.  Iron  oxide  is  intensively   studied  as  a  lithium-ion  battery  anode  material  due  to  its  high  theoretical  specific   capacity,  but  it  has  low  conductivity  and  poor  cycling  performance.  Herein,  we  present   the  design  of  freestanding  Fe3O4/graphene/Carbon  nanotube  film  via  in-­‐‑situ  growth  by   solvothermal  reaction,  vacuum  filtration  and  annealing  methods.  The  film  had  a  sheet   resistance  of  23  Ω/☐  and  a  BET  surface  area  of  132  m2/g.  The  synergistic  effect  of   graphene  and  CNTs  provide  a  flexible  matrix  to  accommodate  the  volume  change  of   metal  oxide  in  lithium  ion  batteries  application.  This  lightweight  film  was  tested  without   using  a  current  collector,  binder  and  conducting  additives,  eliminating  unnecessary   weight  in  the  overall  devices.  The  film  shows  excellent  cyclic  performances,  and  stable   rate  capability.  The  specific  capacity  retained  803  mAh/g  at  the  rate  of  200  mA/g  after  50   cycles.  This  method  demonstrated  a  promising  path  for  flexible  energy  storage  devices.

The  third  chapter  discusses  facile  synthesis  of  three‑dimensional  TiO2/carbon  co-­aerogel  nanostructures  and  their  applications  for  energy  storage.  In  the  field  of  energy   storage,  it  is  important  to  design  new  materials  and  understand  the  fundamental   principles  of  the  electrode  structure.  Facile  synthesis  of  TiO2/carbon  co-aerogel  material   via  a  sol-­gel  method  was  discussed.  This  new  material  was  composed  of  a  3-­D   interconnected  network  of  TiO2  and  carbon  aerogel.  TEM,  SEM,  XRD,  BET  SA,  and   electrochemistry  measurements  were  discussed.  With  an  operating  voltage  between  0.05   and  3.00  V,  the  discharge  capacity  was  ~400  mAh/g  at  168  mA/g  current  density.  

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Cai, Yue (2013). Carbon/Metal  Oxide  Composites  and  Their  Application  in  Lithium-­Ion  Batteries. Master's thesis, Duke University. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/8096.

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