Bleeding outcomes of inpatients receiving therapeutic plasma exchange: A propensity-matched analysis of the National Inpatient Sample.



Although therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is associated with hemostatic abnormalities, its impact on bleeding outcomes is unknown. Therefore, the main study objective was to determine bleeding outcomes of inpatients treated with TPE.

Study design and methods

In a cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), discharges were identified with 10 common TPE-treated conditions. A 1:3 propensity-matched analysis of TPE- to non-TPE-treated discharges was performed. The primary outcome was major bleeding and secondary outcomes were packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion, mortality, disposition, hospital length of stay (LOS), and charges. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the association between TPE and study outcomes.


The study population was 15,964 discharges, of which 3991 were TPE- treated. The prevalence of major bleeding was low (5.4%). When compared to non-TPE discharges, TPE had a significant and positive association with major bleeding (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.63, p = .0003). TPE was also associated with PRBC transfusion (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.42-1.94, p < .0001), in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.10-1.90, p = .0008), hospital length of stay (12.45 [95% CI: 11.95-12.97] vs. 7.38 [95% CI: 7.12-7.65] days, p < .0001) and total charges, ($125,123 [95% CI: $119,220-$131,317] vs. $61,953 [95% CI: $59,391-$64,625], p < .0001), and disposition to non-self-care (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.19-1.39, p < .0001).


The use of TPE in the inpatient setting is positively associated with bleeding; however, with low prevalence. Future studies should address risk factors that predispose patients to TPE-associated bleeding.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Soares Ferreira Júnior, Alexandre, Stephen H Boyle, Maragatha Kuchibhatla and Oluwatoyosi A Onwuemene (2022). Bleeding outcomes of inpatients receiving therapeutic plasma exchange: A propensity-matched analysis of the National Inpatient Sample. Transfusion, 62(2). pp. 386–395. 10.1111/trf.16769 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Maragatha Kuchibhatla

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Statistical research methodology, analysis of repeated measurements, latent growth curve models, latent class growth models, classification and regression trees,
designing clinical trials, designing clinical trials in psychiatry -- both treatment and non-treatment
trials in various comorbid populations.


Oluwatoyosi Adefunke Onwuemene

Associate Professor of Medicine

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.