Costimulation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C by a mutant alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor transgene promotes malignant transformation of thyroid follicular cells.

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Proliferation of thyroid follicular cells is controlled by three intra-cellular cascades [cAMP, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)/Ca2+/diacylglycerol (DAG), and tyrosine kinases] that are activated by distinct extracellular signals and receptors. We had previously generated a transgenic mouse model in which the cAMP cascade was permanently stimulated in thyroid cells by an adenosine A2a receptor (Tg-A2aR model). In the present work, we have generated a transgenic model characterized by the chronic stimulation of both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C in thyroid follicular cells. The bovine thyroglobulin gene promoter was used to direct the expression of a constitutively active mutant of the alpha 1B adrenergic receptor, which is known to couple to both cascades in transfected cell lines. The expression of the transgene resulted, as expected, in the activation of phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase, as demonstrated by the direct measurement of IP3 and cAMP in thyroid tissue. The phenotype resulting from this dual stimulation included growth stimulation, hyperfunction, cell degeneracy attributed to the overproduction of free radicals, and the development of malignant nodules invading the capsule, muscles, and blood vessels. Differentiated metastases were found occasionally in old animals. The development of malignant lesions was more frequent and of earlier onset than in our previous Tg-A2aR model, in which only the cAMP cascade was stimulated. These observations demonstrate that the cAMP and IP3/Ca2+/DAG cascades can cooperate in vivo toward the development of thyroid follicular cell malignancies.





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Ledent, C, JF Denef, S Cottecchia, R Lefkowitz, J Dumont, G Vassart and M Parmentier (1997). Costimulation of adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C by a mutant alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor transgene promotes malignant transformation of thyroid follicular cells. Endocrinology, 138(1). pp. 369–378. 10.1210/endo.138.1.4861 Retrieved from

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Robert J. Lefkowitz

The Chancellor's Distinguished Professor of Medicine

Dr. Lefkowitz’s memoir, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to Stockholm, recounts his early career as a cardiologist and his transition to biochemistry, which led to his Nobel Prize win.

Robert J. Lefkowitz, M.D. is Chancellor’s Distinguished Professor of Medicine and Professor of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Duke University Medical Center. He has been an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1976. Dr. Lefkowitz began his research career in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s when there was not a clear consensus that specific receptors for drugs and hormones even existed. His group spent 15 difficult years developing techniques for labeling the receptors with radioactive drugs and then purifying the four different receptors that were known and thought to exist for adrenaline, so called adrenergic receptors. In 1986 Dr. Lefkowitz transformed the understanding of what had by then become known as G protein coupled receptors because of the way the receptor signal for the inside of a cell through G proteins, when he and his colleagues cloned the gene for the beta2-adrenergic receptor. They immediately recognized the similarity to a molecule called rhodopsin which is essentially a light receptor in the retina. This unexpected finding established the beta receptor and rhodopsin as the first member of a new family of proteins. Because each has a peptide structure, which weaves across the cell membrane seven times, these receptors are referred to as seven transmembrane receptors. This super family is now known to be the largest, most diverse and most therapeutically accessible of all the different kinds of cellular receptors. There are almost a thousand members of this receptor family and they regulate virtually all known physiological processes in humans. They include the receptors not only to numerous hormones and neurotransmitters but for the receptors which mediate the senses of sweet and bitter taste and smell amongst many others. Dr. Lefkowitz also discovered the mechanism by which receptor signaling is turned off, a process known as desensitization. Dr. Lefkowitz work was performed at the most fundamental and basic end of the research spectrum and has had remarkable consequences for clinical medicine. Today, more than half of all prescription drug sales are of drugs that target either directly or indirectly the receptors discovered by Dr. Lefkowitz and his trainees. These include amongst many others beta blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs and antihistamines. Over the past decade he has discovered novel mechanisms by which the receptors function which may lead to the development of an entirely new class of drugs called “biased agonists”. Several such compounds are already in advanced stages of clinical testing. Dr. Lefkowitz has received numerous honors and awards, including the National Medal of Science, the Shaw Prize, the Albany Prize, and the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He was elected to the USA National Academy of Sciences in 1988, the Institute of Medicine in 1994, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988.

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