Optimal Legislative County Clustering in North Carolina

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2019-11-22

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Abstract

North Carolina's constitution requires that state legislative districts should not split counties. However, counties must be split to comply with the "one person, one vote" mandate of the U.S. Supreme Court. Given that counties must be split, the North Carolina legislature and courts have provided guidelines that seek to reduce counties split across districts while also complying with the "one person, one vote" criteria. Under these guidelines, the counties are separated into clusters. The primary goal of this work is to develop, present, and publicly release an algorithm to optimally cluster counties according to the guidelines set by the court in 2015. We use this tool to investigate the optimality and uniqueness of the enacted clusters under the 2017 redistricting process. We verify that the enacted clusters are optimal, but find other optimal choices. We emphasize that the tool we provide lists all possible optimal county clusterings. We also explore the stability of clustering under changing statewide populations and project what the county clusters may look like in the next redistricting cycle beginning in 2020/2021.

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Citation

Carter, Daniel, Hunter Zach, Gregory Herschlag and Jonathan Mattingly (2019). Optimal Legislative County Clustering in North Carolina. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/24761.

Scholars@Duke

Herschlag

Gregory Joseph Herschlag

Associate Research Professor of Mathematics

I am interested in studying techniques to understand fairness in redistricting.  I am also interested in computational fluid dynamics and high-performance computing.

Mattingly

Jonathan Christopher Mattingly

Kimberly J. Jenkins Distinguished University Professor of New Technologies

Jonathan Christopher  Mattingly grew up in Charlotte, NC where he attended Irwin Ave elementary and Charlotte Country Day.  He graduated from the NC School of Science and Mathematics and received a BS is Applied Mathematics with a concentration in physics from Yale University. After two years abroad with a year spent at ENS Lyon studying nonlinear and statistical physics on a Rotary Fellowship, he returned to the US to attend Princeton University where he obtained a PhD in Applied and Computational Mathematics in 1998. After 4 years as a Szego assistant professor at Stanford University and a year as a member of the IAS in Princeton, he moved to Duke in 2003. He is currently a Professor of Mathematics and of Statistical Science.

His expertise is in the longtime behavior of stochastic system including randomly forced fluid dynamics, turbulence, stochastic algorithms used in molecular dynamics and Bayesian sampling, and stochasticity in biochemical networks.

Since 2013 he has also been working to understand and quantify gerrymandering and its interaction of a region's geopolitical landscape. This has lead him to testify in a number of court cases including in North Carolina, which led to the NC congressional and both NC legislative maps being deemed unconstitutional and replaced for the 2020 elections. 

He is the recipient of a Sloan Fellowship and a PECASE CAREER award.  He is also a fellow of the IMS and the AMS. He was awarded the Defender of Freedom award by  Common Cause for his work on Quantifying Gerrymandering.



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