Mitigation behavior prior to COVID-19 vaccination availability is associated with COVID-19 infection and time to vaccination.

Abstract

Background

Mitigation behaviors reduce the incidence of COVID-19 infection. Determining characteristics of groups defined by mitigation behaviors compliance may be useful to inform targeted public health policies and interventions. This study aimed to identify groups of individuals according to self-reported compliance with COVID-19 mitigation behaviors, define compliance class characteristics, and explore associations between compliance classes and important study and public health outcomes.

Methods and findings

We studied 1,410 participants in the Cabarrus County COVID-19 Prevalence and Immunity longitudinal cohort study (June 2020 to December 2021) who were asked 10 questions regarding compliance with recommended COVID-19 mitigation behaviors. By Latent Class Analysis, 1,381 participants were categorized into 3 classes (most [49.4%], moderately [45.0%], and least [5.6%] compliant). Compared with the most compliant class, the least and moderately compliant classes were younger (mean = 61.9 v. 59.0 v. 53.8 years), had fewer medical conditions per individual (1.37 v. 1.08 v. 0.77), and differed in Hispanic ethnicity (6.2% v. 2.8% v. 9.1%) and COVID-19 vaccine intention (65.8% v. 59.8% v. 35.1%). Compared to the most compliant class, the least compliant class had fewer women (54.6% v. 76.3%), fewer insured individuals (92.2% v. 97.4%), and more withdrew from study participation early (28.6% v. 16.0%). Relative to the most compliant class, the least compliant class had a higher likelihood of COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.08 [95% CI 1.13, 3.85]), lower rate of COVID-19 vaccination (72.6% v. 95.1%), and longer time to 50% COVID-19 vaccination following eligibility (8-9 vs 16 days).

Conclusions

Classes defined by mitigation behaviors compliance had distinct characteristics, including age, sex, medical history, and ethnicity, and were associated with important study and public health outcomes. Targeted public health policies and interventions according to the compliance group characteristics may be of value in current and future pandemic responses to increase compliance.

Department

Description

Provenance

Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1371/journal.pone.0283381

Publication Info

Neighbors, Coralei E, Richard Sloane, Carl F Pieper, Douglas Wixted, Christopher W Woods and L Kristin Newby (2023). Mitigation behavior prior to COVID-19 vaccination availability is associated with COVID-19 infection and time to vaccination. PloS one, 18(3). p. e0283381. 10.1371/journal.pone.0283381 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29284.

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