Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys.

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Free-ranging mantled howling monkey (Alouatta palliata Gray) females experienced a regular estrus cycle averaging 16.3 days, demonstrated sexual skin changes, and participated in multiple matings before becoming pregnant. Gestation averaged 186 days. The average interval between births was 22.5 months. Sexual maturity occurred at approximately 36 and 42 months for females and males, respectively. Female age at first birth was about 3 1/2 years. Births were scattered during some years and clustered during others. The age, rank, and parity of the females affected infant survival. More female than male infants survived to one year of age. Increased population size was the result of immigration rather than births.





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Glander, KE (1980). Reproduction and population growth in free-ranging mantled howling monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol, 53(1). pp. 25–36. 10.1002/ajpa.1330530106 Retrieved from

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Kenneth Earl Glander

Professor Emeritus of Evolutionary Anthropology

Primate ecology and social organization: the interaction between feeding patterns and social structure; evolutionary development of optimal group size and composition; factors affecting short and long-term demographic changes in stable groups; primate use of regenerating forests.

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