Treatment patterns in women with urinary urgency and/or urgency urinary incontinence in the symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network Observational Cohort Study.



Limited epidemiological data exist describing how patients engage with various treatments for overactive bladder (OAB). To improve care for patients with OAB, it is essential to gain a better understanding of how patients interface with OAB treatments longitudinally, that is, how often patients change treatments and the pattern of this treatment change in terms of escalation and de-escalation.


To describe treatment patterns for women with bothersome urinary urgency (UU) and/or urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) presenting to specialty care over 1 year.

Study design

The Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) study enrolled adult women with bothersome UU and/or UUI seeking care for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between January 2015 and September 2016. An ordinal logistic regression model was fitted to describe the probabilities of escalating or de-escalating level of treatment during 1-year follow-up.


Among 349 women, 281 reported UUI and 68 reported UU at baseline. At the end of 1 year of treatment by a urologist or urogynecologist, the highest level of treatment received by participants was 5% expectant management, 36% behavioral treatments (BT), 26% physical therapy (PT), 26% OAB medications, 1% percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, 3% intradetrusor onabotulinum toxin A injection, and 3% sacral neuromodulation. Participants using BT or PT at baseline were more likely to be de-escalated to no treatment than participants on OAB medications at baseline, who tended to stay on medications. Predictors of the highest level of treatment included starting level of treatment, hypertension, UUI severity, stress urinary incontinence, and anticholinergic burden score.


Treatment patterns for UU and UUI are diverse. Even for patients with significant bother from OAB presenting to specialty clinics, further treatment often only involves conservative or medical therapies. This study highlights the need for improved treatment algorithms to escalate patients with persistent symptoms, or to adjust care in those who have been unsuccessfully treated.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Bretschneider, Carol Emi, Qian Liu, Abigail R Smith, Ziya Kirkali, Cindy L Amundsen, Henry Lai, Juila Geynisman-Tan, Anna Kirby, et al. (2023). Treatment patterns in women with urinary urgency and/or urgency urinary incontinence in the symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network Observational Cohort Study. Neurourology and urodynamics, 42(1). pp. 194–204. 10.1002/nau.25067 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Cindy Louise Amundsen

Roy T. Parker, M.D. Distinguished Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in the School of Medicine
  • Treatment with a minimally invasive neural modulation system (sacral and posterior tibial nerve) for control of urinary continence
    - Application of botox therapy for urinary urge incontinence
    - Evaluation and treatment for nocturnal voiding
    - Application of nerve stimulation for urinary retention
    - Minimally invasive prolapse surgery for pelvic organ prolapse repairs
    - Treatment for stress urinary incontinence with minimally invasive techniques
    - Evaluation of the urinary microbiome as it relates to recurrent urinary tract infections and lower urinary tract symptoms

John E Jelovsek

F. Bayard Carter Distinguished Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Dr. Jelovsek is the F. Bayard Carter Distinguished Professor of OBGYN at Duke University and serves as Director of Data Science for Women’s Health. He is Board Certified in OBGYN by the American Board of OBGYN and in Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery by the American Board of OBGYN and American Board of Urology. He has an active surgical practice in urogynecology based out of Duke Raleigh. He has expertise as a clinician-scientist in developing and evaluating clinical prediction models using traditional biostatistics and machine learning approaches. These “individualized” patient-centered prediction tools aim to improve decision-making regarding the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and other pelvic floor disorders after childbirth (PMID:29056536), de novo stress urinary incontinence and other patient-perceived outcomes after pelvic organ prolapse surgery, risk of transfusion during gynecologic surgery, and urinary outcomes after mid-urethral sling surgery (PMID: 26942362). He also has significant expertise in leading trans-disciplinary teams through NIH-funded multi-center research networks and international settings. As alternate-PI for the Cleveland Clinic site in the NICHD Pelvic Floor Disorders Network, he was principal investigator on the CAPABLe trial (PMID: 31320277), one of the largest multi-center trials for fecal incontinence studying anal exercises with biofeedback and loperamide for the treatment of fecal incontinence. He was the principal investigator of the E-OPTIMAL study (PMID: 29677302), describing the long-term follow up sacrospinous ligament fixation compared to uterosacral ligament suspension for apical vaginal prolapse. He was also primary author on research establishing the minimum important clinical difference for commonly used measures of fecal incontinence. Currently, he serves as co-PI in the NIDDK Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network (LURN) (U01DK097780-05) where he has been involved in studies in the development of Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network Symptom Index-29 (LURN SI-29) and LURN SI-10 questionnaires for men and women with LUTS. He is also the site-PI for the PREMIER trial (1R01HD105892): Patient-Centered Outcomes of Sacrocolpopexy versus Uterosacral Ligament Suspension for the Treatment of Uterovaginal Prolapse.

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