Neutropenia in glycogen storage disease Ib: outcomes for patients treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.


Purpose of review

Glycogen storage disease Ib (GSD Ib) is characterized by hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, neutropenia, enterocolitis and recurrent bacterial infections. It is attributable to mutations in G6PT1, the gene for the glucose-6-phosphate transporter responsible for transport of glucose into the endoplasmic reticulum. Neutropenia in GSD Ib is now frequently treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We formed a cooperative group to review outcomes of the long-term treatment of GSD Ib patients treated with G-CSF.

Recent findings

The study enrolled 103 patients (48 men and 55 women), including 47 currently adult patients. All of these patients were treated with G-CSF, starting at a median age of 3.8 years (range 0.04-33.9 years) with a median dose of 3.0 mcg/kg/day (range 0.01-93.1 mcg/kg/day) for a median of 10.3 years (range 0.01-29.3 years). Neutrophils increased in response to G-CSF in all patients (median values before G-CSF 0.2 × 10/l, on G-CSF 1.20 x 10/l). Treatment increased spleen size (before G-CSF, 47%, on treatment on G-CSF 76%), and splenomegaly was the dose-limiting adverse effect of treatment (pain and early satiety). Clinical observations and records attest to reduce frequency of infectious events and the severity of inflammatory bowel symptoms, but fever and recurrent infections remain a significant problem. In the cohort of patients followed carefully through the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry, four patients have developed myelodysplasia or acute myeloid leukemia and we are aware of four other cases, (altogether seven on G-CSF, one never treated with G-CSF). Liver transplantation in five patients did not correct neutropenia. Four patients had hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; two adults and two children were transplanted; one adult and one child survived.


GSD Ib is a complex disorder of glucose metabolism causing severe chronic neutropenia. G-CSF is effective to raise blood neutrophil counts and reduce fevers and infections in most patients. In conjunction with other therapies (salicylates, mesalamine sulfasalazine and prednisone), G-CSF ameliorates inflammatory bowel symptoms, but doses must be limited because it increases spleen size associated with abdominal pain.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Dale, David C, Audrey Anna Bolyard, Tracy Marrero, Merideth L Kelley, Vahagn Makaryan, Emily Tran, Jamie Leung, Laurence A Boxer, et al. (2019). Neutropenia in glycogen storage disease Ib: outcomes for patients treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Current opinion in hematology, 26(1). pp. 16–21. 10.1097/moh.0000000000000474 Retrieved from

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Priya Sunil Kishnani

Chen Family Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics


A multidisciplinary approach to care of individuals with genetic disorders in conjunction with clinical and bench research that contributes to:
1) An understanding of the natural history and delineation of long term complications of genetic disorders  with a special focus on liver Glycogen storage disorders, lysosomal disorders with a special focus on Pompe disease, Down syndrome and hypophosphatasia
2) ) The development of new therapies such as AAV gene therapy, enzyme therapy, small molecule and other approaches for genetic disorders through translational research

3) The development and execution of large multicenter trials to confirm safety and efficacy of potential therapies
4) Role of antibodies/immune response in patients on therapeutic proteins and AAV gene therapy

. Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD): We are actively following subjects with all types of Glycogen Storage Disease, with particular emphasis on types I, II, III, IV, VI and IX. The goal of the treatment team is to better determine the clinical phenotype and long term complications of these diseases. Attention to disease manifestations observed in adulthood, such as adenomas and risk for HCC, is of paramount importance in monitoring and treating these chronic illnesses. We are establishing clinical algorithms for managing adenomas, and the overall management of these patients including cardiac, bone, muscle and liver issues. A special focus is biomarker discovery, an Omics approach including metabolomics and immune phenotyping. We are working on AAV gene therapy for several hepatic GSDs

.Lysosomal Storage Disease: The Duke Lysosomal Storage Disease (LSD) treatment center follows and treats patients with Pompe, Gaucher, Fabry, Mucopolysaccharidosis, Niemann Pick, LAL-D and other LSD's. The Duke Metabolism Clinical Research Team is exploring many aspects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), including impact on different systems, differential response, and long term effects. Other symptomatic and treatment interventions for this category of diseases are also being explored in the context of clinical care.

. Pompe Disease: The care team has extensive experience in the care of infants and adults with Pompe disease and was instrumental in conducting clinical trials and the bench to bedside work that led to the 2006 FDA approval of alglucosidase alfa, the first treatment for this devastating disease. We are currently focusing on role of antibodies/immune response on patient outcome and role of immune modulation/immune suppression as an adjunct to ERT. Our team is also working on AAV gene therapy for Pompe disease. A focus is on newborn screening (NBS) and understanding the clinical phenotype and management approaches for babies identified via NBS

.  Hypophosphatasia: We follow a large cohort of patients with HPP. The goal is to understand the features of the disease beyond bone disease, development of biomarkers, role of ERT and immune responses in HPP

. Neuromuscular disorders: We are collaborating with neurologists, cardiologists and neuromuscular physicians to serve as a treatment site for clinical trials in these diseases. We are currently involved in trials of DMD and are working closely on setting up collaborations for studies in SMA.

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