Topoisomerase 1 (Top1)-associated Genome Instability in Yeast: Effects of Persistent Cleavage Complexes or Increased Top1 Levels

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Jinks-Robertson, Sue

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Petes, Thomas D

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Sloan, Roketa Shanell

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2016-06-06T16:12:07Z

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2016-06-06T16:12:07Z

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2016

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Genetics and Genomics

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Topoisomerase 1 (Top1), a Type IB topoisomerase, functions to relieve transcription- and replication-associated torsional stress in DNA. Top1 cleaves one strand of DNA, covalently associates with the 3’ end of the nick to form a Top1-cleavage complex (Top1cc), passes the intact strand through the nick and finally re-ligates the broken strand. The chemotherapeutic drug, Camptothecin, intercalates at a Top1cc and prevents the crucial re-ligation reaction that is mediated by Top1, resulting in the conversion of a nick to a toxic double-strand break during DNA replication or the accumulation of Top1cc. This mechanism of action preferentially targets rapidly dividing tumor cells, but can also affect non-tumor cells when patients undergo treatment. Additionally, Top1 is found to be elevated in numerous tumor tissues making it an attractive target for anticancer therapies. We investigated the effects of Top1 on genome stability, effects of persistent Top1-cleavage complexes and elevated Top1 levels, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that increased levels of the Top1cc resulted in a five- to ten-fold increase in reciprocal crossovers, three- to fifteen fold increase in mutagenesis and greatly increased instability within the rDNA and CUP1 tandem arrays. Increased Top1 levels resulted in a fifteen- to twenty-two fold increase in mutagenesis and increased instability in rDNA locus. These results have important implications for understanding the effects of CPT and elevated Top1 levels as a chemotherapeutic agent.

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https://hdl.handle.net/10161/12252

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Molecular biology

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Genetics

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DNA Repair

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Genome Instability

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Mutagenesis

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Recombination

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Topoisomerase

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Topoisomerase 1 (Top1)-associated Genome Instability in Yeast: Effects of Persistent Cleavage Complexes or Increased Top1 Levels

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Dissertation

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