Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of multiple substance use disorders among adult primary care patients.

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John, William S
Zhu, He
Mannelli, Paolo
Schwartz, Robert P
Subramaniam, Geetha A
Wu, Li-Tzy

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BACKGROUND:Addressing multiple substance use disorders (SUDs) in primary care-based screening and intervention may improve SUD treatment access, engagement, and outcomes. To inform such efforts, research is needed on the prevalence and patterns of multiple SUDs among primary care patients. METHODS:Data were analyzed from a sample of 2000 adult (aged ≥ 18) primary care patients recruited for a multisite National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study (CTN-0059). Past-year DSM-5 SUDs (tobacco, alcohol, and drug) were assessed by the modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence and correlates of multiple versus single SUDs were examined. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore patterns of multiple SUDs. RESULTS:Multiple SUDs were found among the majority of participants with SUD for alcohol, cannabis, prescription opioids, cocaine, and heroin. Participants who were male, ages 26-34, less educated, and unemployed had increased odds of multiple SUDs compared to one SUD. Having multiple SUDs was associated with greater severity of tobacco or alcohol use disorder. LCA of the sample identified three classes: class 1 (83.7%) exhibited low prevalence of all SUDs; class 2 (12.0%) had high-moderate prevalence of SUDs for tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis; class 3 (4.3%) showed high prevalence of SUD for tobacco, opioids, and cocaine. LCA-defined classes were distinguished by sex, age, race, education, and employment status. CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest that primary care physicians should be aware of multiple SUDs when planning treatment, especially among adults who are male, younger, less educated, or unemployed. Interventions that target multiple SUDs warrant future investigation.





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John, William S, He Zhu, Paolo Mannelli, Robert P Schwartz, Geetha A Subramaniam and Li-Tzy Wu (2018). Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of multiple substance use disorders among adult primary care patients. Drug and alcohol dependence, 187. pp. 79–87. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.01.035 Retrieved from

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Paolo Mannelli

Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Li-Tzy Wu

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Education/Training: Pre- and post-doctoral training in mental health service research, psychiatric epidemiology (NIMH T32), and addiction epidemiology (NIDA T32) from Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health (Maryland); Fellow of the NIH Summer Institute on the Design and Conduct of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Director: Duke Community Based Substance Use Disorder Research Program.

Research interests: COVID-19, Opioid misuse, Opioid overdose, Opioid use disorder, Opioid addiction prevention and treatment, Pain and addiction, Chronic diseases and substance use disorders, diabetes, pharmacy-based care models and services, medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD), Drug overdose, Polysubstance use and disorders, cannabis, alcohol, tobacco, hallucinogens, stimulants, e-cigarette, SBIRT (substance use Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment), EHR-based research and intervention, data science, psychometric analysis (IRT), epidemiology of addictions and comorbidity, behavioral health care integration, health services research (mental health disorders, substance use disorders, chronic diseases), nosology, research design, HIV risk behavior. 

FUNDED Research projects (Principal Investigator [PI], Site PI, or Sub-award PI): 
R03: Substance use/dependence (PI).
R21: Treatment use for alcohol use disorders (PI).
R21: Inhalant use & disorders (PI).
R01: MDMA/hallucinogen use/disorders (PI).
R01: Prescription pain reliever (opioids) misuse and use disorders (PI).
R01: Substance use disorders in adolescents (PI).
R21: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R33: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R01: Evolution of Psychopathology in the Population (ECA Duke site PI).
R01: Substance use disorders and treatment use among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (PI).
UG1: SBIRT in Primary Care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: TAPS Tool, Substance use screening tool validation in primary care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: NIDA CTN Mid-Southern Node (Clinical Trials Network, PI).
UG1: EHR Data Element Study (NIDA, PI).
UG1: Buprenorphine Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration in the Management of Patients With Opioid Use Disorder (NIDA, PI).
PCORI: INSPIRE-Integrated Health Services to Reduce Opioid Use While Managing Chronic Pain (Site PI).
CDC R01: Evaluation of state-mandated acute and post-surgical pain-specific CDC opioid prescribing (Site PI).
Pilot: Measuring Opioid Use Disorders in Secondary Electronic Health Records Data (Carolinas Collaborative Grant: Duke PI).
R21: Developing a prevention model of alcohol use disorder for Pacific Islander young adults (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Subthreshold Opioid Use Disorder Prevention Trial (NIH HEAL Initiative) (NIDA supplement, CTN-0101, Investigator).
NIDA: A Pilot Study to Permit Opioid Treatment Program Physicians to Prescribe Methadone through Community Pharmacies for their Stable Methadone Patients (NIDA/FRI: Study PI).
UG1: Integrating pharmacy-based prevention and treatment of opioid and other substance use disorders: A survey of pharmacists and stakeholder (NIH HEAL Initiative, NIDA, PI).
UG1: NorthStar Node of the Clinical Trials Network (NIDA, Site PI).
R34: Intervention Development and Pilot Study to Reduce Untreated Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Opioid Use Disorders (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Optimal Policies to Improve Methadone Maintenance Adherence Longterm (OPTIMMAL Study) (NIDA, Site PI).
R01: Increasing access to opioid use disorder treatment by opening pharmacy-based medication units of opioid treatment programs (NIDA, PI)

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