Tunable quantum phase transitions in a resonant level coupled to two dissipative baths

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2014-02-18

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Abstract

We study tunneling through a resonant level connected to two dissipative bosonic baths: one is the resistive environment of the source and drain leads, while the second comes from coupling to potential fluctuations on a resistive gate. We show that several quantum phase transitions (QPT) occur in such a model, transitions which emulate those found in interacting systems such as Luttinger liquids or Kondo systems. We first use bosonization to map this dissipative resonant level model to a resonant level in a Luttinger liquid, one with, curiously, two interaction parameters. Drawing on methods for analyzing Luttinger liquids at both weak and strong coupling, we obtain the phase diagram. For strong dissipation, a Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless QPT separates strong-coupling and weak-coupling (charge localized) phases. In the source-drain symmetric case, all relevant backscattering processes disappear at strong coupling, leading to perfect transmission at zero temperature. In fact, a QPT occurs as a function of the coupling asymmetry or energy of the resonant level: the two phases are (i) the system is cut into two disconnected pieces (zero transmission), or (ii) the system is a single connected piece with perfect transmission, except for a disconnected fractional degree of freedom. The latter arises from the competition between the two fermionic leads (source and drain), as in the two-channel Kondo effect. © 2014 American Physical Society.

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10.1103/PhysRevB.89.085116

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Liu, DE, H Zheng, G Finkelstein and HU Baranger (2014). Tunable quantum phase transitions in a resonant level coupled to two dissipative baths. Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 89(8). 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.085116 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/19617.

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Scholars@Duke

Finkelstein

Gleb Finkelstein

Professor of Physics

Gleb Finkelstein is an experimentalist interested in physics of quantum nanostructures, such as Josephson junctions and quantum dots made of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and topological materials. These objects reveal a variety of interesting electronic properties that may form a basis for future quantum devices.

Baranger

Harold U. Baranger

Professor of Physics

The broad focus of Prof. Baranger's group is quantum open systems at the nanoscale, particularly the generation of correlation between particles in such systems. Fundamental interest in nanophysics-- the physics of small, nanometer scale, bits of solid-- stems from the ability to control and probe systems on length scales larger than atoms but small enough that the averaging inherent in bulk properties has not yet occurred. Using this ability, entirely unanticipated phenomena can be uncovered on the one hand, and the microscopic basis of bulk phenomena can be probed on the other. Additional interest comes from the many links between nanophysics and nanotechnology. Within this thematic area, our work ranges from projects trying to nail down realistic behavior in well-characterized systems, to more speculative projects reaching beyond regimes investigated experimentally to date.

Correlations between particles are a central issue in many areas of condensed matter physics, from emergent many-body phenomena in complex materials, to strong matter-light interactions in quantum information contexts, to transport properties of single molecules. Such correlations, for either electrons or bosons (photons, plasmons, phonons,…), underlie key phenomena in nanostructures. Using the exquisite control of nanostructures now possible, experimentalists will be able to engineer correlations in nanosystems in the near future. Of particular interest are cases in which one can tune the competition between different types of correlation, or in which correlation can be tunably enhanced or suppressed by other effects (such as confinement or interference), potentially causing a quantum phase transition-- a sudden, qualitative change in the correlations in the system.

My recent work has addressed correlations in both electronic systems (quantum wires and dots) and photonic systems (photon waveguides). We have focused on 3 different systems: (1) qubits coupled to a photonic waveguide, (2) quantum dots in a dissipative environment, and (3) interfaces between graphene and a superconductor, particularly when graphene is in the quantum Hall state. The methods used are both analytical and numerical, and are closely linked to experiments.


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