Using an implementation science framework to advance the science of nursing education.

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The process of adopting evidence-based educational practices and teaching methods has not been examined in nursing education.


This article provides a framework for adopting educational evidence and designing studies in nursing education using an implementation science (IS) framework.


The three phases for implementing evidence-based practices (development, translation, and sustainment) are used for this framework.


Preparatory activities are needed before implementing a new educational practice or method, followed by identification of implementation strategies (e.g., training and support of faculty, strategies for communication and tips to remove barriers, guides for deciding on timing), assessing process and outcome measures, and plans for sustaining the new practice. A process map, examples of implementation processes, and sample research questions guide nurse educators in planning and conducting studies using an IS framework.


Research has not examined the processes and strategies for applying evidence-based educational practices in nursing. Studies using an IS framework are needed to provide knowledge about how to move evidence into routine educational practices and implement more effective teaching methods. This article provides guidance for nurse educators to begin this research and suggests possible research questions.





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Oermann, Marilyn H, Staci S Reynolds and Bradi B Granger (2022). Using an implementation science framework to advance the science of nursing education. Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 39. pp. 139–145. 10.1016/j.profnurs.2022.01.014 Retrieved from

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Marilyn Haag Oermann

Thelma M. Ingles Distinguished Professor of Nursing in the School of Nursing

Marilyn H. Oermann, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN is Thelma M. Ingles Professor of Nursing at Duke University School of Nursing. Dr. Oermann’s scholarship focuses on nursing education, with an emphasis on studies of the nursing literature. Her current research is on predatory publishing in nursing. Dr. Oermann is the author or co-author of 34 books (many of which have won national awards), more than 220 articles in peer-reviewed journals, and a wide variety of other publications. Her current books include Evaluation and Testing in Nursing Education (7th ed., 2025), Writing for Publication in Nursing (5th ed., 2024), Clinical Teaching Strategies in Nursing (6th ed., 2023), Teaching in Nursing and Role of the Educator: The Complete Guide to Best Practice in Teaching, Evaluation, and Curriculum Development (3rd ed., 2022), and A Systematic Approach to Evaluation of Nursing Programs (2023). In addition, she edited 6 volumes of the Annual Review of Nursing Education. Dr. Oermann is the Editor-in-Chief of Nurse Educator. She is past editor of the Journal of Nursing Care Quality and Nurse Author & Editor. She lectures widely on writing for publication and nursing education topics.

Dr. Oermann is a member of the American Academy of Nursing and National League for Nursing (NLN) Academy of Nursing Education. She received the NLN Award for Excellence in Nursing Education Research, the Sigma Theta Tau International Elizabeth Russell Belford Award for Excellence in Education, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Excellence Award, the Margaret Comerford Freda Award for Editorial Leadership in Nursing from the International Academy of Nursing Editors, and the NLN President's Award.

In 2023, the National League for Nursing named a new award in her honor: the NLN Marilyn H. Oermann Award for Distinguished Research in Nursing Education, to recognize an individual or team that has generated an evidentiary base for the science of nursing education.


Staci Reynolds

Clinical Professor in the School of Nursing

Dr. Staci Reynolds joined Duke in January 2016.  At DUSON, Dr. Reynolds teaches in the ABSN Program (neuroscience nursing) and DNP program (healthcare quality improvement methods). Previously, she clinically served as a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) at DUH within the neuroscience inpatient units and Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiology department. In January 2023, Dr. Reynolds was appointed the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Nursing Care Quality.  Before coming to DUSON, she was a neurocritical care nurse and a neuroscience CNS at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital.

Dr. Reynolds received a baccalaureate degree in nursing science from Indiana University (IU) in Indianapolis, Indiana.  She earned a Master’s degree as a Clinical Nurse Specialist at IU in 2011, and completed her PhD at IU in May 2016.  Dr. Reynolds’ dissertation focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines, and her current research interests includes evidence-based practice implementation and quality improvement.


Bradi Bartrug Granger

Research Professor in the School of Nursing

Dr. Bradi Granger is a Research Professor at Duke University School of Nursing, Director of the Duke Heart Center Nursing Research Program, and adjunct faculty at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. She is also a core faculty at the Duke-Margolis Center for Health Policy. Dr. Granger received her doctorate in nursing from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, her MSN from Duke University, and her BSN from the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

Dr. Granger has extensive clinical experience in cardiovascular nursing, and her clinical work as a Clinical Nurse Specialist has been dedicated to overcoming barriers to the use and conduct of research in the service setting through the development of pragmatic tools that change the way nurses learn about, apply, and conduct nursing science. She has developed an innovative model for clinical inquiry and research in the hospital setting, which has been adopted in clinical settings across the U.S. and abroad. Dr. Granger is an active member of the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science, the American Association of Critical Care Nurses, the American Heart Association, and the European Society for Patient Adherence, Compliance, and Persistence. 

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