Longitudinal Changes in Regional Cerebral Perfusion and Cognition Following Cardiac Surgery.

Abstract

Cardiac surgery has been associated with increased risk of postoperative cognitive decline, as well as dementia risk in the general population. Few studies, however, have examined the impact of coronary revascularization or valve replacement / repair surgery on longitudinal cerebral perfusion changes or their association with cognitive function.We examined longitudinal changes in cerebral perfusion among 54 individuals with cardiac disease; 27 undergoing cardiac surgery and 27 matched controls. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance perfusion imaging was used to quantify cerebral blood flow within the anterior communicating artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and posterior communicating artery (PCA) vascular territories prior to surgery and postoperatively at 6-weeks and 1-year. Cognitive performance was examined during the same intervals using a battery of tests tapping memory, executive, information processing and upper extremity motor functions. Repeated measures, mixed models were used to examine for perfusion changes and the association between perfusion changes and cognition.Significant postoperative increases in perfusion were observed at 6-weeks within the MCA vascular territory following cardiac surgery (P = .035 for interaction). Perfusion changes were most notable in distal territories of the MCA and PCA at 6-weeks, with no additional changes at 1-year. Postoperative increases in MCA perfusion at 6-weeks were associated with improved psychomotor speed (β = 0.35, P = .016); whereas, no significant differences were found between groups in vascular territory perfusion and cognition at 1-year.Cardiac surgery is associated with significant short-term increases in MCA perfusion with associated improvements in psychomotor speed.

Department

Description

Provenance

Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.07.056

Publication Info

Smith, Patrick J, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Zachary A Monge, Todd B Harshbarger, Michael L James, Jeffrey G Gaca, John H Alexander, Miles M Berger, et al. (2018). Longitudinal Changes in Regional Cerebral Perfusion and Cognition Following Cardiac Surgery. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.07.056 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/17607.

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Scholars@Duke

Browndyke

Jeffrey Nicholas Browndyke

Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Dr. Browndyke is an Associate Professor of Behavioral Health & Neurosciences in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences.  He has a secondary appointment as Assistant Professor of Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery.

Dr. Browndyke's research interests involve the use of advanced neurocognitive and neuroimaging techniques for perioperative contributions to delirium and later dementia risk, monitoring of late-life neuropathological disease progression, and intervention/treatment outcomes.  His research also involves novel telehealth methods for remote neurocognitive evaluation and implementation of non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques to assist in postoperative recovery and dementia risk reduction.

Dr. Browndyke's clinical expertise is focused upon geriatric neuropsychology with an emphasis in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of dementia and related disorders in adults and US veteran patient populations.

Harshbarger

Todd B Harshbarger

Assistant Professor in Radiology
James

Michael Lucas James

Professor of Anesthesiology

With a clinical background in neuroanesthesia and neurointensive care, I have a special interest in translational research in intracerebral hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. I am fortunate to be part of a unique team of highly motivated and productive individuals who allow me to propel ideas from bench to bedside and the ability to reverse translate ideas from the bedside back to the bench.

Gaca

Jeffrey Giles Gaca

Associate Professor of Surgery
Alexander

John Hunter Peel Alexander

Professor of Medicine

John H. Alexander, MD, MHS is a cardiologist and Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at Duke University School of Medicine, as well as the Vice Chief, Clinical Research in the Division of Cardiology. He is the Director of Cardiovascular Research at the Duke Clinical Research Institute where he oversees a large group of clinical research faculty and a broad portfolio of cardiovascular clinical trials and observational clinical research programs. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation.

Dr. Alexander’s clinical interests are in acute and general cardiovascular disease, valvular heart disease, and echocardiology. His research is focused on the translation of novel therapeutic concepts into clinical data through clinical trials, specifically on the therapeutics of acute coronary syndromes, chronic coronary artery disease, and cardiac surgery and on novel methodological approaches to clinical trials. He was on the Executive Committee of the ARISTOTLE trial of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and was the Principal Investigator of the APPRAISE-2 trial of apixaban in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

Dr. Alexander has published extensively and has served as the principal investigator of numerous multicenter clinical trials. He currently serves as the co-chair of the Clinical Trial Transformation Initiative (CTTI).

Berger

Miles Berger

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

My research team focuses on 3 areas:

1) We are interested in the mechanisms of postoperative neurocognitive disorders such as delirium, and the relationship between these disorders and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD). Towards these ends, we use a combination of methods including pre and postoperative CSF and blood sampling, functional neuroimaging, EEG recordings, rigorous biochemical assays, and cognitive testing and delirium screening. In the long run, this work has the potential to help us improve long term neurocognitive outcomes for the more than 20 million Americans over age 60 who undergo anesthesia and surgery each year.

2) We are interested in the idea that altered anesthetic-induced brain EEG waveforms can serve as indicators of specific types of preclinical/prodromal neurodegenerative disease pathology, specific cognitive domain deficits, and postoperative delirium risk. We are studying this topic in the ALADDIN study, a 250 patient prospective cohort study in older surgical patients at Duke. Many people have viewed anesthesia and surgery as a "stress test" for the aging brain; we hope that this work will help us learn how to develop a real-time EEG readout of this "perioperative stress test" for the aging brain, just as ECG analysis can provide a real-time readout of cardiac treadmill stress tests. 

3) We are interested in how the APOE4 allele damages brain circuitry throughout the adult lifespan, and how this contributes to increased risk of late onset Alzheimer's disease as well as worse outcomes following other acute brain disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). In particular, we are investigating the hypothesis that the APOE4 allele leads to increased CNS complement activation throughout adult life, which then contributes to increased synaptic phagocytosis and long term neurocognitive decline. We are also studying whether acutely modulating APOE signaling in older surgical patients with the APOE mimetic peptide CN-105 is sufficient to block postoperative CSF neuroinflammation and complement activation. 

Our work is transdisciplinary, and thus our team includes individuals with diverse scientific and clinical backgrounds, ranging from neuropsychology and neuroimaging to proteomics, flow cytometry and behavioral neuroscience in animal models. What unites us is the desire to better understand mechanisms of age-dependent brain dysfunction, both in the perioperative setting and in APOE4 carriers. 

Newman

Mark Franklin Newman

Merel H. Harmel Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology

Best known for his work in assessing and improving clinical outcomes and quality of life following cardiac surgery, Dr. Mark Newman is President of the Duke Private Diagnostic Clinic (The Duke Faculty Practice Organization) and the Merel H. Harmel Professor of Anesthesiology at Duke University Medical Center. In addition, Dr. Newman developed the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Research Group of the Duke Clinical Research Institute established at Duke in 2001 to further the study of strategies to improve the outcomes of patients undergoing surgery and anesthesia. Dr. Newman has received funding from the National Institute on Aging, the American Heart Association, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, and the International Anesthesia Research Society  to investigate the impact of perioperative outcomes (neurocognitive decline, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal injury) on quantity and quality of life following cardiac surgery and resulting in numerous seminal publications in the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA and Lancet. Dr. Newman is a popular lecturer and speaker, having appeared on NBC Nightly News and The Today Show and having spoken at more than 200 national and international meetings.  Dr. Newman recently stepped down as the Chairman of the Duke University Department after 13 years to assume the role of PDC President.  During Dr. Newman’s tenure the department grew exponentially doubling its clinical and academic funding, and developing many outstanding individuals that have gone on to leadership roles at Duke and other key academic institutions across the country.

Milano

Carmelo Alessio Milano

Joseph W. and Dorothy W. Beard Distinguished Professor of Experimental Surgery
Mathew

Joseph P. Mathew

Jerry Reves, M.D. Distinguished Professor of Cardiac Anesthesiology

Current research interests include:
1. The relationship between white matter patency, functional connectivity (fMRI) and neurocognitive function following cardiac surgery.
2. The relationship between global and regional cortical beta-amyloid deposition and postoperative cognitive decline.
3. The effect of lidocaine infusion upon neurocognitive function following cardiac surgery.
4. The association between genotype and outcome after cardiac surgery.
5. Atrial fibrillation following cardiopulmonary bypass.


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