A baseline paleoecological study for the Santa Cruz Formation (late–early Miocene) at the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, Argentina


Coastal exposures of the Santa Cruz Formation (late-early Miocene, southern Patagonia, Argentina) between the Coyle and Gallegos rivers have been a fertile ground for recovery of Miocene vertebrates for more than 100 years. The formation contains an exceptionally rich mammal fauna, which documents a vertebrate assemblage very different from any living community, even at the ordinal level. Intensive fieldwork performed since 2003 (nearly 1200 specimens have been collected, including marsupials, xenarthrans, notoungulates, litopterns astrapotheres, rodents, and primates) document this assertion. The goal of this study is to attempt to reconstruct the trophic structure of the Santacrucian mammalian community with precise stratigraphic control. Particularly, we evaluate the depauperate carnivoran paleoguild and identify new working hypotheses about this community. A database has been built from about 390 specimens from two localities: Campo Barranca (CB) and Puesto Estancia La Costa (PLC). All species have been classified as herbivore or carnivore, their body masses estimated, and the following parameters estimated: population density, on-crop biomass, metabolic rates, and the primary and secondary productivity. According to our results, this model predicts an imbalance in both CB and PLC faunas which can be seen by comparing the secondary productivity of the ecosystem and the energetic requirements of the carnivores in it. While in CB, the difference between carnivores and herbivores is six-fold, in PLC this difference is smaller, the secondary productivity is still around three times that of the carnivore to herbivore ratio seen today. If both localities are combined, the difference rises to around four-fold in favour of secondary productivity. Finally, several working hypotheses about the Santacrucian mammalian community and the main lineages of herbivores and carnivores are offered. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.





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Publication Info

Vizcaíno, SF, MS Bargo, RF Kay, RA Fariña, M Di Giacomo, JMG Perry, FJ Prevosti, N Toledo, et al. (2010). A baseline paleoecological study for the Santa Cruz Formation (late–early Miocene) at the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, Argentina. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 292(3-4). pp. 507–519. 10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.04.022 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/17662.

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Richard Frederick Kay

Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology

I have two areas of research:1) the evolution of primates in South America; and 2) the use of primate anatomy to reconstruct the phylogenetic history and adapations of living and extinct primates, especially Anthropoidea.

1) Evolution of primates and mammalian faunal evolution, especially in South America. For the past 30 years, I have been engaged in research in Argentina, Bolivia The Dominican Republic, Peru, and Colombia with three objectives:a) to reconstruct the evolutionary history and adaptive patterns of South America primates and other mammals; b) to establish a more precise geologic chronology for the mammalian faunas between the late Eocene and middle Miocene (between about 36 and about 15 million years ago); and c) to use anatomy and niche structure of modern mammals as a means to reconstruct the evolution of mammalian niche structure in the Neotropics.

2) Primate Anatomy. I am working to reconstruct the phylogeny of primates based (principally) on anatomical evidence; and to infer the adaptations of extinct primates based mainly on cranial and dental evidence.

Field activities
Current fieldwork is focused on the study of terrestrial biotic change in Patagonia through the 'mid-Miocene Climate Optimum' when global climate was moderate and the subtropical zone, with primates and other typically tropical vertebrates, extended their ranges up to 55 degrees of South latitude.

In this collaborative research undertaking with colleagues at University of Washington and Boise State University, the geochronology of the Santa Cruz Formation at in extreme southern Argentina is being refined using radiometric dating. Stratigraphically-controlled collections have been made of vertebrates and plant macro- and microfossils. Climate change and its impact on the biota is assessed 1) using biogeochemical analysis of stable isotopes in fossil mammalian tooth enamel; 2) by documenting changes in mammalian community structure (richness, origination and extinction rates, and ecological morphology); and 3) by documenting changes in vegetation and floral composition through the study of phytoliths. These three independent lines of evidence in a refined geochronologic framework will then be compared with similar evidence from continental sequences in the Northern Hemisphere and oceanic climatic records to improve our understanding of the timing and character of climatic change in continental high latitudes during this temporal interval.

A second field project project in its early stages is the study of the fossil vertebrates of the Amazon Basin. The latter is a collaborative effort of biologists and geologists across schools at Duke (Nicholas School) and among six North American universities. My role is to direct the vertebrate paleontology component of this project in Brazil and Amazonian Peru. The hope is to recover primates from the Oligocene through Early Miocene. New material will shed light on the phylogenetic status of African Paleogene anthropoids, one of which may be the platyrrhine sister-taxon. Also, new remains of fossil primates will help to refine hypotheses about the origins of the modern families and subfamilies of platyrrhines, all of which trace back to an Early Miocene (17-21 Ma) common ancestor. Finally, new fossil primates may further constrain the time of entry of platyrrhines into South America.

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