Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination Promptness after Eligibility in a North Carolina Longitudinal Cohort Study


<jats:p>Many studies identified factors associated with vaccination intention and hesitancy, but factors associated with vaccination promptness and the effect of vaccination intention on vaccination promptness are unknown. This study identified factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination promptness and evaluated the role of vaccination intention on vaccination promptness in 1223 participants in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (June 2020 to December 2021). Participants answered questions regarding COVID-19 vaccination intention, vaccination status, and reasons for not receiving a vaccine. The association of baseline vaccine hesitancy with vaccination was assessed by the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Follow-up analyses tested the importance of other variables predicting vaccination using the Cox proportional hazards model. Older age was associated with shorter time to vaccination (HR = 1.76 [1.37–2.25] 85-year-old versus 65-year-old). Lower education levels (HR = 0.80 [0.69–0.92]), household incomes (HR = 0.84 [0.72–0.98]), and baseline vaccination intention of ‘No’ (HR = 0.16 [0.11–0.23]) were associated with longer times to vaccination. The most common reasons for not being vaccinated (N = 58) were vaccine safety concerns (n = 33), side effects (n = 28), and vaccine effectiveness (n = 25). Vaccination campaigns that target populations prone to hesitancy and address vaccine safety and effectiveness could be helpful in future vaccination rollouts.</jats:p>






Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Neighbors, Coralei E, Richard A Faldowski, Carl F Pieper, Joshua Taylor, Megan Gaines, Richard Sloane, Douglas Wixted, Christopher W Woods, et al. (n.d.). Factors Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination Promptness after Eligibility in a North Carolina Longitudinal Cohort Study. Vaccines, 11(11). pp. 1639–1639. 10.3390/vaccines11111639 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/29305.

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Coralei Neighbors


Coralei Neighbors is a Ph.D. Student at the Department of Population Health Sciences in the Duke School of Medicine. She received her Bachelor of Science in Education for Health Science Studies from Baylor University and her Master of Science in Global Health from Duke University. Coralei has experience in national and international infectious disease research, with interests in infectious disease surveillance, health economics, and global health policy.


Carl F. Pieper

Professor of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Analytic Interests.

1) Issues in the Design of Medical Experiments: I explore the use of reliability/generalizability models in experimental design. In addition to incorporation of reliability, I study powering longitudinal trials with multiple outcomes and substantial missing data using Mixed models.

2) Issues in the Analysis of Repeated Measures Designs & Longitudinal Data: Use of Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) or Mixed Models in modeling trajectories of multiple variables over time (e.g., physical and cognitive functioning and Blood Pressure). My current work involves methodologies in simultaneous estimation of trajectories for multiple variables within and between domains, modeling co-occuring change.

Areas of Substantive interest: (1) Experimental design and analysis in gerontology and geriatrics, and psychiatry,
(2) Multivariate repeated measures designs,


Douglas Wixted

Research Program Leader, Tier 2

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