Design and in vivo evaluation of more efficient and selective deep brain stimulation electrodes.

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2015-08

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Abstract

Objective

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders and a promising therapy for treating epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Despite its clinical success, the efficiency and selectivity of DBS can be improved. Our objective was to design electrode geometries that increased the efficiency and selectivity of DBS.

Approach

We coupled computational models of electrodes in brain tissue with cable models of axons of passage (AOPs), terminating axons (TAs), and local neurons (LNs); we used engineering optimization to design electrodes for stimulating these neural elements; and the model predictions were tested in vivo.

Main results

Compared with the standard electrode used in the Medtronic Model 3387 and 3389 arrays, model-optimized electrodes consumed 45-84% less power. Similar gains in selectivity were evident with the optimized electrodes: 50% of parallel AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of perpendicular AOPs from 44 to 48% with the standard electrode to 0-14% with bipolar designs; 50% of perpendicular AOPs could be activated while reducing activation of parallel AOPs from 53 to 55% with the standard electrode to 1-5% with an array of cathodes; and, 50% of TAs could be activated while reducing activation of AOPs from 43 to 100% with the standard electrode to 2-15% with a distal anode. In vivo, both the geometry and polarity of the electrode had a profound impact on the efficiency and selectivity of stimulation.

Significance

Model-based design is a powerful tool that can be used to improve the efficiency and selectivity of DBS electrodes.

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Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1088/1741-2560/12/4/046030

Publication Info

Howell, Bryan, Brian Huynh and Warren M Grill (2015). Design and in vivo evaluation of more efficient and selective deep brain stimulation electrodes. Journal of neural engineering, 12(4). p. 046030. 10.1088/1741-2560/12/4/046030 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/23852.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.

Scholars@Duke

Grill

Warren M. Grill

Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. School Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Our research employs engineering approaches to understand and control neural function. We work on fundamental questions and applied development in electrical stimulation of the nervous system to restore function to individuals with neurological impairment or injury.

Current projects include:
• understanding the mechanisms of and developing advanced approaches to deep brain stimulation to treat movement disorders,
• developing novel approaches to peripheral nerve electrical stimulation for restoration of bladder function, 
• understanding the mechanisms of and developing advanced approaches to spinal cord stimulation to treat chronic pain,
• understanding and controlling the cellular effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation, and
• design of novel electrodes and waveforms for selective stimulation of the nervous system.


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