Efficacy and Safety of a Pegasparaginase-Based Chemotherapy Regimen vs an L-asparaginase-Based Chemotherapy Regimen for Newly Diagnosed Advanced Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Abstract

Importance

The L-asparaginase-based SMILE (dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, L-asparaginase, and etoposide) chemotherapy regimen has shown higher response rates and survival benefit over an anthracycline-containing regimen. However, the safety profile was not satisfied. A well-tolerated regimen with promising efficacy is lacking.

Objective

To compare the efficacy and safety of the DDGP (dexamethasone, cisplatin, gemcitabine, and pegaspargase) regimen with the SMILE regimen in newly diagnosed advanced-stage (III/IV) extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL).

Design, setting, and participants

This was an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial that took place across 12 participating hospitals in China from January 2011 to February 2019. Patients were eligible if they were 14 to 70 years old with newly diagnosed ENKL in stages III/IV and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 2. Eligible patients were evenly randomized to either the DDGP or SMILE group.

Interventions

Patients in each group were treated with the assigned regimen every 21 days for 6 cycles.

Main outcomes and measures

The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary end points included overall response rate and overall survival (OS). The adverse events between the DDGP and SMILE groups were compared.

Results

Among the 87 randomized patients, 80 received treatment (40 in the DDGP group and 40 in the SMILE group); the median (IQR) age was 43 (12) years, and 51 (64%) were male. The baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. At a median follow-up of 41.5 months, the median PFS was not reached in the DDGP group vs 6.8 months in the SMILE group (HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.77; P = .004), and the median OS was not reached in the DDGP group vs 75.2 months in the SMILE group (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.19-0.89, P = .02). The PFS rate at 3 years and OS rate at 5 years were higher in the DDGP group vs the SMILE group (3-year PFS, 56.6% vs 41.8%; 5-year OS, 74.3% vs 51.7%). The overall response rate was higher in the DDGP group than in the SMILE group (90.0% vs 60.0%; P = .002). Grade 3 and 4 hematologic toxic effects were more frequently reported in the SMILE group vs the DDGP group (leukopenia, 85.0% vs 62.5%; neutropenia, 85.0% vs 65.0%).

Conclusions and relevance

In this randomized clinical trial, the DDGP regimen showed promising preliminary results for patients with newly diagnosed local advanced ENKL. A confirmation trial based on larger population is warranted.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01501149.

Department

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Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.1968

Publication Info

Wang, Xinhua, Lei Zhang, Xiangli Liu, Xin Li, Ling Li, Xiaorui Fu, Zhenchang Sun, Jingjing Wu, et al. (2022). Efficacy and Safety of a Pegasparaginase-Based Chemotherapy Regimen vs an L-asparaginase-Based Chemotherapy Regimen for Newly Diagnosed Advanced Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA oncology. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.1968 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/25445.

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.

Scholars@Duke

Young

Ken H Young

Professor of Pathology

I am a clinically-oriented diagnostic physician with clinical expertise in the pathologic diagnosis of hematologic cancers including tumors of the bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, spleen and pre-malignant hematologic conditions. Another area of interest is blood cancer classification with molecular and genetic profiling. In my research program, we focus on molecular mechanisms of tumor progression, cell-of-origin, biomarkers, and novel therapeutic strategies in lymphoma, myeloma and leukemia. In addition to patient care and translational research, medical education and scientific communication are also part of interest. I provide persistent support for the physician-scientist program and Blood Cancer Pathology program in the department and cancer center. Many residents, fellows, graduates and postdocs have worked and been trained in our program. We perform comprehensive clinical and research functions that include bone marrow, lymphoma pathology, clinical flow cytometry, cytogenetics, molecular diagnostics and outside services.

I am currently the director of hematopathology division that provides diagnostic consultation services and relevant specialized testing for patients with various types of acute and chronic leukemia, lymphoma and benign hematologic disorders. I am specialized in the diagnosis of hematological disorders, including acute and chronic leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms, B and T-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, cutaneous and orbital lymphomas and benign bone marrow and lymph node disorders. 

Our group has been supported by various funding resources since 2006 and has published 318 original peer-reviewed articles and 56 review articles, many in high- impact journals (Nature Clin Onc Rev, JCO, JAMA, Lancet, Blood, JHO, Leukemia and Clinical Cancer Research). The contributions to the hematology field include the development of novel diagnostic algorithms, molecular and genetic biomarkers for classification of blood cancer, lymphoid neoplasms and lymphoid diseases.




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