Self-Measured Blood Pressure-Guided Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US-Based Telemedicine Trials.



The optimal approach to implementing telemedicine hypertension management in the United States is unknown.


We examined telemedicine hypertension management versus the effect of usual clinic-based care on blood pressure (BP) and patient/clinician-related heterogeneity in a systematic review/meta-analysis. We searched US-based randomized trials from Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Compendex, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, and 2 trial registries. We used trial-level differences in BP and its control rate at ≥6 months using random-effects models. We examined heterogeneity in univariable metaregression and in prespecified subgroups (clinicians leading pharmacotherapy [physician/nonphysician], self-management support [pharmacist/nurse], White versus non-White patient predominant trials [>50% patients/trial], diabetes predominant trials [≥25% patients/trial], and White patient predominant but not diabetes predominant trials versus both non-White and diabetes patient predominant trials].


Thirteen, 11, and 7 trials were eligible for systolic and diastolic BP difference and BP control, respectively. Differences in systolic and diastolic BP and BP control rate were -7.3 mm Hg (95% CI, -9.4 to -5.2), -2.7 mm Hg (-4.0 to -1.5), and 10.1% (0.4%-19.9%), respectively, favoring telemedicine. Greater BP reduction occurred in trials where nonphysicians led pharmacotherapy, pharmacists provided self-management support, White patient predominant trials, and White patient predominant but not diabetes predominant trials, with no difference by diabetes predominant trials.


Telemedicine hypertension management is more effective than clinic-based care in the United States, particularly when nonphysicians lead pharmacotherapy and pharmacists provide self-management support. Non-White patient predominant trials achieved less BP reduction. Equity-conscious, locally informed adaptation of telemedicine interventions is needed before wider implementation.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Acharya, Sameer, Gagan Neupane, Austin Seals, Madhav Kc, Dean Giustini, Sharan Sharma, Yhenneko J Taylor, Deepak Palakshappa, et al. (2024). Self-Measured Blood Pressure-Guided Pharmacotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of US-Based Telemedicine Trials. Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979). 10.1161/hypertensionaha.123.22109 Retrieved from

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Hayden Barry Bosworth

Professor in Population Health Sciences

Dr. Bosworth is a health services researcher and Deputy Director of the Center of Innovation to Accelerate Discovery and Practice Transformation (ADAPT)  at the Durham VA Medical Center. He is also Vice Chair of Education and Professor of Population Health Sciences. He is also a Professor of Medicine, Psychiatry, and Nursing at Duke University Medical Center and Adjunct Professor in Health Policy and Administration at the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research interests comprise three overarching areas of research: 1) clinical research that provides knowledge for improving patients’ treatment adherence and self-management in chronic care; 2) translation research to improve access to quality of care; and 3) eliminate health care disparities. 

Dr. Bosworth is the recipient of an American Heart Association established investigator award, the 2013 VA Undersecretary Award for Outstanding Achievement in Health Services Research (The annual award is the highest honor for VA health services researchers), and a VA Senior Career Scientist Award. In terms of self-management, Dr. Bosworth has expertise developing interventions to improve health behaviors related to hypertension, coronary artery disease, and depression, and has been developing and implementing tailored patient interventions to reduce the burden of other chronic diseases. These trials focus on motivating individuals to initiate health behaviors and sustaining them long term and use members of the healthcare team, particularly pharmacists and nurses. He has been the Principal Investigator of over 30 trials resulting in over 400 peer reviewed publications and four books. This work has been or is being implemented in multiple arenas including Medicaid of North Carolina, private payers, The United Kingdom National Health System Direct, Kaiser Health care system, and the Veterans Affairs.

Areas of Expertise: Health Behavior, Health Services Research, Implementation Science, Health Measurement, and Health Policy

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