Contributions of Dorsal/Ventral Hippocampus and Dorsolateral/Dorsomedial Striatum to Interval Timing
Humans and animals have remarkable capabilities in keeping time and using time as a guide to orient their learning and decision making. Psychophysical models of timing and time perception have been proposed for decades and have received behavioral, anatomical and pharmacological data support. However, despite numerous studies that aimed at delineating the neural underpinnings of interval timing, a complete picture of the neurobiological network of timing in the seconds-to-minutes range remains elusive. Based on classical interval timing protocols and proposing a Timing, Immersive Memory and Emotional Regulation (TIMER) test battery, the author investigates the contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus as well as the dorsolateral and the dorsomedial striatum to interval timing by comparing timing performances in mice after they received cytotoxic lesions in the corresponding brain regions. On the other hand, a timing-based theoretical framework for the emergence of conscious experience that is closely related to the function of the claustrum is proposed so as to serve both biological guidance and the research and evolution of “strong” artificial intelligence. Finally, a new “Double Saturation Model of Interval Timing” that integrates the direct- and indirect- pathways of striatum is proposed to explain the set of empirical findings.
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