Optical Control of Magnetic Feshbach Resonances by Closed-Channel Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Optical control of interactions in ultracold gases opens new fields of research by creating ``designer" interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, previous optical methods using single optical fields generally suffer from atom loss due to spontaneous scattering. This thesis reports new optical methods, employing two optical fields to control interactions in ultracold gases, while suppressing spontaneous scattering by quantum interference. In this dissertation, I will discuss the experimental demonstration of two optical field methods to control narrow and broad magnetic Feshbach resonances in an ultracold gas of $^6$Li atoms. The narrow Feshbach resonance is shifted by $30$ times its width and atom loss suppressed by destructive quantum interference. Near the broad Feshbach resonance, the spontaneous lifetime of the atoms is increased from $0.5$ ms for single field methods to $400$ ms using our two optical field method. Furthermore, I report on a new theoretical model, the continuum-dressed state model, that calculates the optically induced scattering phase shift for both the broad and narrow Feshbach resonances by treating them in a unified manner. The continuum-dressed state model fits the experimental data both in shape and magnitude using only one free parameter. Using the continuum-dressed state model, I illustrate the advantages of our two optical field method over single-field optical methods.
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