X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).
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This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p<0.0001). We also show that apoptosis increases as doses of phosphor, psoralen, or radiation increase. Finally, in an in-vivo pilot study of BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001). Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which in-turn unleashes both short- and potentially long-term antitumor activity of photo-active therapeutics like psoralen.
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1371/journal.pone.0162078
Publication InfoOldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; ... Spector, Neil L (2016). X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT). PLoS One, 11(9). pp. e0162078. 10.1371/journal.pone.0162078. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13034.
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Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology
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Gustavo S. Montana Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Radiation Oncology
Mark W. Dewhirst, DVM, PhD is the Gustavo S. Montana Professor of Radiation Oncology and Vice Director for Basic Science in the Duke Cancer Institute. Dr. Dewhirst has research interests in tumor hypoxia, angiogenesis, hyperthermia and drug transport. He has spent 30 years studying causes of tumor hypoxia and the use of hyperthermia to treat cancer. In collaboration with Professor David Needham in the Pratt School of Engineering, he has developed a novel thermally sensitive drug carrying liposom
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George Barth Geller Distinguished Professor of Immunology
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Dr Oldham is Professor in the Department of Radiation Oncology (primary) and Biomedical Engineering (Secondary). He is the Director of the Optical Biophysics and 3D Dosimetry Lab. The lab has received NIH R01 funding to develop optical imaging techniques for 3D dosimetry. We are also developing a new optical imaging technique for high-resolution 3D imaging of vascular networks and gene expression in unsectioned tissue samples. A range of applications are being explored through collaborations wit
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