The Relationship Between Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, Other Bacterial Bloodstream Infections, and Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa.
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BACKGROUND: Country-specific studies in Africa have indicated that Plasmodium falciparum is associated with invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. We conducted a multicenter study in 13 sites in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of iNTS disease, other systemic bacterial infections, and malaria. METHODS: Febrile patients received a blood culture and a malaria test. Isolated bacteria underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the association between iNTS disease and malaria was assessed. RESULTS: A positive correlation between frequency proportions of malaria and iNTS was observed (P = .01; r = 0.70). Areas with higher burden of malaria exhibited higher odds of iNTS disease compared to other bacterial infections (odds ratio [OR], 4.89; 95% CI, 1.61-14.90; P = .005) than areas with lower malaria burden. Malaria parasite positivity was associated with iNTS disease (OR, 2.44; P = .031) and gram-positive bacteremias, particularly Staphylococcus aureus, exhibited a high proportion of coinfection with Plasmodium malaria. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were the predominant NTS serovars (53/73; 73%). Both moderate (OR, 6.05; P = .0001) and severe (OR, 14.62; P < .0001) anemia were associated with iNTS disease. CONCLUSIONS: A positive correlation between iNTS disease and malaria endemicity, and the association between Plasmodium parasite positivity and iNTS disease across sub-Saharan Africa, indicates the necessity to consider iNTS as a major cause of febrile illness in malaria-holoendemic areas. Prevention of iNTS disease through iNTS vaccines for areas of high malaria endemicity, targeting high-risk groups for Plasmodium parasitic infection, should be considered.
Africa South of the Sahara
Analysis of Variance
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1093/cid/civ893
Publication InfoAaby, P; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Ahmet Niang, A; Ali, M; Aseffa, A; Baker, S; ... Yeshitela, B (2016). The Relationship Between Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease, Other Bacterial Bloodstream Infections, and Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 62 Suppl 1. pp. S23-S31. 10.1093/cid/civ893. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10161/13760.
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Adjunct Professor in the Department of Medicine
I am based in northern Tanzania where I am Site Leader for Duke University’s collaborative research program based at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre and Director of Tanzania Operations for the Duke Global Health Institute. I oversee the design and implementation of research studies on infectious diseases, particularly febrile illness, invasive bacterial disease, HIV-associated opportunistic infections, clinical trials of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child tr