Hormone naïve prostate cancer: predicting and maximizing response intervals.
Hormone naïve advanced prostate cancer is subdivided into two disease states: biochemical recurrence and traditional M1 (metastatic) prostate cancer and characterized by no prior hormonal therapy or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In biochemical recurrence/prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence, men should be risk-stratified based on their PSA doubling time, the Gleason score and the timing of the recurrence. In general, only men who are at high risk should be considered for early/immediate ADT although this is best done using shared decision with the patient. The type of ADT to be used in biochemical recurrence ranging from oral-only peripheral blockade (peripheral androgen deprivation) to complete hormonal therapy (combined androgen blockade [CAB]) remains in debate owing to lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, there is good RCT support for use of intermittent hormonal therapy (IHT). There is also limited research on biomarker response (PSA and testosterone decline) to predict prognosis. On the other hand, in the setting of M1 hormone naïve prostate cancer, there are many more RCT's to inform our decisions. CAB and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists perhaps provide a slight efficacy advantage while IHT may be slightly inferior with minimal M1 disease. The PSA nadir at 7 months after starting ADT is a powerful prognostic tool for M1 patients. There is growing recognition that serum testosterone (T) control while on ADT is linked to the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Especially for a M1 patient, maintaining a serum T below 20-30 ng dl-1 prolongs the response to ADT. Novel oral agents (abiraterone and enzalutamide) may soon find use in hormone naïve disease and may alter the treatment landscape. Despite over 75 years of experience with ADT, many questions remain, and the field continues to evolve.
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.4103/1008-682X.152821
Publication InfoMoul, Judd (2015). Hormone naïve prostate cancer: predicting and maximizing response intervals. Asian journal of andrology, 17(6). pp. 929-933. 10.4103/1008-682X.152821. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/18522.
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James H. Semans, M.D. Professor of Urologic Surgery, in the School of Medicine
Dr Judd Moul joined the Duke faculty in mid 2004 after a career in the US Army Medical Corps mainly at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. He is a retired colonel and a noted researcher and clinician in the area of prostate cancer and is a urologic oncologist. He served as the division chief of Duke Division of Urology from 2004 to 2011 and was named the James H Semans MD Professor of surgery in 2009 becoming Duke's first named endowed chair for urology. He was awarded the Gold Cystosco