The Bermuda Principles


The Bermuda Principles were developed from 1996-1998 during the international Human Genome Project (HGP). Their major purpose was to promote the rapid, electronic sharing of DNA sequences generated by the HGP. The Principles were adopted as policies by several government agencies participating in the HGP. They have since served as a model for polices promoting the rapid sharing of research data. From 2010-2013, the Center for Public Genomics (in collaboration with the University of Adelaide) conducted a research project exploring the origins and implications of the Bermuda Principles. This work was funded primarily by the National Human Genome Research Institute (P50 HG 003391), with supplementary funds from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation and the United States Studies Centre (USSC) at the University of Sydney. The main researchers were (1) Kathryn Maxson, Duke University; (2) Rachel Ankeny, University of Adelaide; and (3) Robert Cook-Deegan, Duke University.

Research files provided here include interview transcripts generated by staff at the Center for Public Genomics, archival documents and manuscripts collected during the research process, and e-mail correspondence deemed historically relevant by the research team. All items in this subcommunity, 'The Bermuda Principles,' are licensed under CC-BY licenses (see below). In all scholarly and other attributions, please use accepted bibliographic conventions and include URL links to all items and/or collections used.

Subcommunity keywords: Human Genome Project, HGP, interview, Bermuda Principles, Bermuda Accord, International Strategy Meetings on Human Genome Sequencing, data sharing, science policy, genomics, genome, genome sequence, genetics, DNA sequence, DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, NIH, National Institutes of Health, DOE, Department of Energy


Some items in the Bermuda Principles collection (called a “subcommunity” within DukeSpace) are embargoed by the authors or providers, and will not become available until the dates listed. All items not under embargo, or no longer under embargo, are available for download. We have received explicit permission to share all items available, under the terms and conditions provided. Please contact Kathryn Maxson Jones ( if you have questions or special requests.


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