Assisting Unsupervised Optical Flow Estimation with External Information

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2023

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Abstract

Optical flow estimation is a long-standing problem in computer vision with broad applications in autonomous driving, robotics, etc.. Due to the scarcity of ground-truth labels, the unsupervised estimation of optical flow is especially important. However, it is a poorly constrained problem and presents challenges in the presence of occlusions, motion boundaries, non-Lambertian surfaces, lack of texture, and illumination changes. Therefore, we explore using external information, namely partial labels, semantics, and stereo views, to assist unsupervised optical flow estimation.Supervised training of optical flow predictors generally yields better accuracy than unsupervised training. However, the improved performance comes at an often high annotation cost. Semi-supervised training trades off accuracy against annotation cost. We use a simple yet effective semi-supervised training method to show that even a small fraction of labels can improve flow accuracy by a significant margin over unsupervised training. In addition, we propose active learning methods based on simple heuristics to further reduce the number of labels required to achieve the same target accuracy. Our experiments on both synthetic and real optical flow datasets show that our semi-supervised networks generally need around 50% of the labels to achieve close to full-label accuracy, and only around 20% with active learning on Sintel. We also analyze and show insights on the factors that may influence active learning performance. Code is available at https://github.com/duke-vision/optical-flow-active-learning-release. Unsupervised optical flow estimation is especially hard near occlusions and motion boundaries and in low-texture regions. We show that additional information such as semantics and domain knowledge can help better constrain this problem. We introduce SemARFlow, an unsupervised optical flow network designed for autonomous driving data that takes estimated semantic segmentation masks as additional inputs. This additional information is injected into the encoder and into a learned upsampler that refines the flow output. In addition, a simple yet effective semantic augmentation module provides self-supervision when learning flow and its boundaries for vehicles, poles, and sky. Together, these injections of semantic information improve the KITTI-2015 optical flow test error rate from 11.80% to 8.38%. We also show visible improvements around object boundaries as well as a greater ability to generalize across datasets. Code is available at https://github.com/duke-vision/semantic-unsup-flow-release. Both optical flow and stereo disparities are image matches and can therefore benefit from joint training. Depth and 3D motion provide geometric rather than photometric information and can further improve optical flow. Accordingly, we design a first network that estimates flow and disparity jointly and is trained without supervision. A second network, trained with optical flow from the first as pseudo-labels, takes disparities from the first network, estimates 3D rigid motion at every pixel, and reconstructs optical flow again. A final stage fuses the outputs from the two networks. In contrast with previous methods that only consider camera motion, our method also estimates the rigid motions of dynamic objects, which are of key interest in applications. This leads to better optical flow with visibly more detailed occlusions and object boundaries as a result. Our unsupervised pipeline achieves 7.36% optical flow error on the KITTI-2015 benchmark and outperforms the previous state-of-the-art 9.38% by a wide margin. It also achieves slightly better or comparable stereo depth results. Code will be made available.

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Yuan, Shuai (2023). Assisting Unsupervised Optical Flow Estimation with External Information. Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/30317.

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Dukes student scholarship is made available to the public using a Creative Commons Attribution / Non-commercial / No derivative (CC-BY-NC-ND) license.