Computed tomography dose index and dose length product for cone-beam CT: Monte Carlo simulations.

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Dosimetry in kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a challenge due to the limitation of physical measurements. To address this, we used a Monte Carlo (MC) method to estimate the CT dose index (CTDI) and the dose length product (DLP) for a commercial CBCT system. As Dixon and Boone showed that CTDI concept can be applicable to both CBCT and conventional CT, we evaluated weighted CT dose index (CTDI(w)) and DLP for a commercial CBCT system. Two extended CT phantoms were created in our BEAMnrc/EGSnrc MC system. Before the simulations, the beam collimation of a Varian On-Board Imager (OBI) system was measured with radiochromic films (model: XR-QA). The MC model of the OBI X-ray tube, validated in a previous study, was used to acquire the phase space files of the full-fan and half-fan cone beams. Then, DOSXYZnrc user code simulated a total of 20 CBCT scans for the nominal beam widths from 1 cm to 10 cm. After the simulations, CBCT dose profiles at center and peripheral locations were extracted and integrated (dose profile integral, DPI) to calculate the CTDI per each beam width. The weighted cone-beam CTDI (CTDI(w,l)) was calculated from DPI values and mean CTDI(w,l) (CTDI(w,l)) and DLP were derived. We also evaluated the differences of CTDI(w) values between MC simulations and point dose measurements using standard CT phantoms. In results, it was found that CTDI(w,600) was 8.74 ± 0.01 cGy for head and CTDI(w,900) was 4.26 ± 0.01 cGy for body scan. The DLP was found to be proportional to the beam collimation. We also found that the point dose measurements with standard CT phantoms can estimate the CTDI within 3% difference compared to the full integrated CTDI from the MC method. This study showed the usability of CTDI as a dose index and DLP as a total dose descriptor in CBCT scans.





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Kim, Sangroh, Haijun Song, Ehsan Samei, Fang-Fang Yin and Terry T Yoshizumi (2011). Computed tomography dose index and dose length product for cone-beam CT: Monte Carlo simulations. Journal of applied clinical medical physics, 12(2). p. 3395. 10.1120/jacmp.v12i2.3395 Retrieved from

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Ehsan Samei

Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology

Dr. Ehsan Samei, PhD, DABR, FAAPM, FSPIE, FAIMBE, FIOMP, FACR is a Persian-American medical physicist. He is the Reed and Martha Rice Distinguished Professor of Radiology, and Professor of Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Electrical and Computer Engineering at Duke University. He serves as the Chief Imaging Physicist for Duke University Health System, the Director of the Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories and the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), and co-PI of one the five Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (CERSI), Triangle CERSI. He is certified by the American Board of Radiology, recognized as a Distinguished Investigator by the Academy of Radiology Research, and awarded Fellow by five professional organization. He founded/co-founded the Duke Medical Physics Program, the Duke Imaging Physics Residency Program, the Duke Clinical Imaging Physics Group, the Center for Virtual Imaging Trials, and the Society of Directors of Academic Medical Physics Programs (SDAMPP). He has held senior leadership positions in the AAPM, SPIE, SDAMPP, and RSNA, including election to the presidency of the SEAAPM (2010-2011), SDAMPP (2011), and AAPM (2023).

Dr. Samei’s scientific expertise include x-ray imaging, theoretical imaging models, simulation methods, and experimental techniques in medical image formation, quantification, and perception.  His research aims to bridge the gap between scientific scholarship and clinical practice, in the meaningful realization of translational research, and in clinical processes that are informed by scientific evidence. He has advanced image quality and safety metrics and radiometrics that are clinically relevant and that can be used to design, optimize, and monitor interpretive and quantitative performance of imaging techniques. These have been implemented in advanced imaging performance characterization, procedural optimization, and clinical dose and quality analytics. His most recent research interests have been virtual clinical trial across a broad spectrum of oncologic, pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular diseases, and developing methodological advances that provide smart fusions of principle-informed and AI-based, data-informed approaches to scientific inquiry.

Dr. Samei has mentored over 140 trainees (graduate and postgraduate). He has >1400 scientific publications including >360 referred journal articles, ~600 conference presentations, and 4 books. Citations to his work is reflected in an h-index of 74 and a Weighted Relative Citation Ratio of 613. His laboratory of over 20 researchers has been supported continuously over two decades by 44 extramural grants, culminating in a NIH Program Project grant in 2021 to establish the national Center for Virtual Imaging Trials (CVIT), joining a small number of prominent Biomedical Technology Research Centers across the nation. In 2023, he, along with 3 other PIs, was awarded to lead one of five national Centers of Excellence in Regulatory Science and Innovation (Triangle CERSI) by the FDA.


Fang-Fang Yin

Gustavo S. Montana Distinguished Professor of Radiation Oncology

Stereotactic radiosurgery, Stereotactic body radiation therapy, treatment planning optimization, knowledge guided radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, oncological imaging and informatics

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