The genomic consequences of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between species of manakins.

Abstract

The processes of adaptation and speciation are expected to shape genomic variation within and between diverging species. Here we analyze genomic heterogeneity of genetic differentiation and introgression in a hybrid zone between two bird species (Manacus candei and M. vitellinus) using 59 100 SNPs, a whole genome assembly, and Bayesian models. Measures of genetic differentiation (FST) and introgression (genomic cline center [α] and rate [β]) were highly heterogeneous among loci. We identified thousands of loci with elevated parameter estimates, some of which are likely to be associated with variation in fitness in Manacus populations. To analyze the genomic organization of differentiation and introgression, we mapped SNPs onto a draft assembly of the M. vitellinus genome. Estimates of FST, α, and β were autocorrelated at very short physical distances (< 100 bp), but much less so beyond this. In addition, average statistical associations (linkage disequilibrium) between SNPs were generally low and were not higher in admixed populations than in populations of the parental species. Although they did not occur with a constant probability across the genome, loci with elevated FST, α, and β were not strongly co-localized in the genome. Contrary to verbal models that predict clustering of loci involved in adaptation and isolation in discrete genomic regions, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that genetic regions involved in adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation are scattered throughout the genome. We also found that many loci were characterized by both exceptional genetic differentiation and introgression, consistent with the hypothesis that loci involved in isolation are also often characterized by a history of divergent selection. However, the concordance between isolation and differentiation was only partial, indicating a complex architecture and history of loci involved in isolation.

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Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1111/mec.12201

Publication Info

Parchman, TL, Z Gompert, MJ Braun, RT Brumfield, DB McDonald, JAC Uy, G Zhang, ED Jarvis, et al. (2013). The genomic consequences of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between species of manakins. Mol Ecol, 22(12). pp. 3304–3317. 10.1111/mec.12201 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/11206.

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Scholars@Duke

Jarvis

Erich David Jarvis

Adjunct Professor in the Deptartment of Neurobiology

Dr. Jarvis' laboratory studies the neurobiology of vocal communication. Emphasis is placed on the molecular pathways involved in the perception and production of learned vocalizations. They use an integrative approach that combines behavioral, anatomical, electrophysiological and molecular biological techniques. The main animal model used is songbirds, one of the few vertebrate groups that evolved the ability to learn vocalizations. The generality of the discoveries is tested in other vocal learning orders, such as parrots and hummingbirds, as well as non-vocal learners, such as pigeons and non-human primates. Some of the questions require performing behavior/molecular biology experiments in freely ranging animals, such as hummingbirds in tropical forest of Brazil. Recent results show that in songbirds, parrots and hummingbirds, perception and production of song are accompanied by anatomically distinct patterns of gene expression. All three groups were found to exhibit vocally-activated gene expression in exactly 7 forebrain nuclei that are very similar to each other. These structures for vocal learning and production are thought to have evolved independently within the past 70 million years, since they are absent from interrelated non-vocal learning orders. One structure, Area X of the basal ganglia's striatum in songbirds, shows large differential gene activation depending on the social context in which the bird sings. These differences may reflect a semantic content of song, perhaps similar to human language.

The overall goal of the research is to advance knowledge of the neural mechanisms for vocal learning and basic mechanisms of brain function. These goals are further achieved by combined collaborative efforts with the laboratories of Drs. Mooney and Nowicki at Duke University, who study respectively behavior and electrophysiological aspects of songbird vocal communication.


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