Mechanistic Roles of Resection Nucleases and DNA Polymerases during Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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Date

2015

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Guo, Xiaoge

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Jinks-Robertson, Sue

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Abstract

Every living cell faces a multitude of DNA threats in its lifetime because damage to DNA is intrinsic to life itself. A double-strand break (DSB) is the most cytotoxic type of DNA damage and is a potent inducer of chromosomal aberrations. Defects in DSB repair are a major driver of tumorigenesis and are associated with numerous developmental, neurological and immunological disorders. To counteract the deleterious effects of DSBs, organisms have evolved a homologous repair (HR) mechanism that is highly precise. The key to its error-free nature lies in its use of a homologous template in restoring the DSB and its preferential occurrence during late S and G2 phase of the cell cycle when identical sister chromatids are available as templates for repair. However, HR can also engage homologous chromosomes and ectopic substrates that share homology, resulting in mitotic loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) and unwanted chromosomal aberrations. In this case, understanding of the underlying mechanisms and molecular factors that influence accurate sequence transfer and exchange between two homologous substrates becomes crucial.

The focus of this dissertation is examination of the genetic factors and molecular processes occurring at early intermediate steps (DNA end resection and DNA synthesis) of mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To model DSB repair, we established a unique plasmid-based assay with a small 8-base pair (bp) gap in the middle of an 800-bp plasmid substrate. To delineate the molecular structures of strand exchange intermediates during HR, we used a 2% diverged plasmid substrate relative to a chromosomal repair template to generate mismatch-containing heteroduplex DNA (hetDNA) intermediates. The assay was performed in a mismatch repair (MMR)-defective background allowing hetDNA to persist and to segregate into daughter cells at the next round of replication. Unexpectedly, even when MMR was inactivated, sequence analysis of the recombinants revealed patches of gene conversion and restoration reflecting mismatch correction within hetDNA tracts. We showed that, in this system, MMR and nucleotide excision repair (NER) correct mismatches via two different mechanisms. While mispairing of nucleotides triggers MMR, NER is recruited by the subtle 6-methyladenine mark on the plasmid substrate, leading to coincident correction of mismatches. The methylation marks on the plasmid were acquired from the bacterial host’s native restriction-modification system during plasmid propagation.

Formation of hetDNA occurs when a plasmid substrate engages the chromosomal template for repair, forming a D-loop intermediate. D-loop extension requires DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase/s. Translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerases have been implicated in HR in both chicken DT40 cells and fruit fly, but not in yeast. This class of polymerases is known for its low fidelity due to a lack of exonuclease domain and is commonly used for lesion bypass and in extending ends with mismatches. We reported for the first time a requirement of Polζ-Rev1 and Polη (TLS polymerases in S. cerevisiae) for completing gap repair. Moreover, gap-repair efficiency suggested that these two polymerases function independently. We concluded that TLS polymerases are involved in either extending the invading 3’ end and/or in the gap-filling process that completes recombination.

DNA resection of a DSB serves as a primary step to generate a 3’ single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for subsequent homologous template invasion, but this process has mostly been studied in the absence of a repair template or when downstream HR steps are disabled. To analyze the individual contributions of identified nucleases to DSB resection in the context of repair, we established a chromosomal assay; the substrate size was increased to 4 kilobases (kb) and 85 SNPs were present at ~50 bp intervals. In this chromosomal assay, resection and DNA synthesis influence the length of hetDNA tracts in the final recombinants, allowing these two steps to be analyzed. We specifically focused on synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) events, where hetDNA reflects DNA synthesis and extent of resection. Our main conclusions are as follows. DNA end resection on the annealing end of NCO products generated by SDSA is not as extensive as one might expect from resection measured in single-strand annealing (SSA) assays. In addition, although the two long-range resection pathways (Sgs1-Dna2 and Exo1) can support recombination in a redundant manner, hetDNA was significantly reduced upon loss of either. End processing of DSBs is predominantly 5’ to 3’, but we also observed loss of sequences (greater than 8 nt but less than 40 nt) at the 3’ termini. We have tested and ruled out the involvement of Mre11 and Polε proofreading activity. Lastly, Pol32 functions as a subunit of Polδ to promote extensive repair synthesis during SDSA. hetDNA tract lengths were significantly shorter in the absence of the Pol32 subunit of Polδ, providing direct evidence that Polδ extends the invading end during HR. Together, this work advances our understanding of how resection nucleases and DNA polymerase/s function to regulate mitotic recombination outcome and influence the molecular patterns of NCOs.

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Guo, Xiaoge (2015). Mechanistic Roles of Resection Nucleases and DNA Polymerases during Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dissertation, Duke University. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/11307.

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