# Browsing by Subject "stat.ML"

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Item Open Access A Priori Generalization Analysis of the Deep Ritz Method for Solving High Dimensional Elliptic EquationsLu, Jianfeng; Lu, Yulong; Wang, MinThis paper concerns the a priori generalization analysis of the Deep Ritz Method (DRM) [W. E and B. Yu, 2017], a popular neural-network-based method for solving high dimensional partial differential equations. We derive the generalization error bounds of two-layer neural networks in the framework of the DRM for solving two prototype elliptic PDEs: Poisson equation and static Schr\"odinger equation on the $d$-dimensional unit hypercube. Specifically, we prove that the convergence rates of generalization errors are independent of the dimension $d$, under the a priori assumption that the exact solutions of the PDEs lie in a suitable low-complexity space called spectral Barron space. Moreover, we give sufficient conditions on the forcing term and the potential function which guarantee that the solutions are spectral Barron functions. We achieve this by developing a new solution theory for the PDEs on the spectral Barron space, which can be viewed as an analog of the classical Sobolev regularity theory for PDEs.Item Open Access A stochastic version of Stein Variational Gradient Descent for efficient samplingLi, L; Li, Y; Liu, JG; Liu, Z; Lu, JWe propose in this work RBM-SVGD, a stochastic version of Stein Variational Gradient Descent (SVGD) method for efficiently sampling from a given probability measure and thus useful for Bayesian inference. The method is to apply the Random Batch Method (RBM) for interacting particle systems proposed by Jin et al to the interacting particle systems in SVGD. While keeping the behaviors of SVGD, it reduces the computational cost, especially when the interacting kernel has long range. Numerical examples verify the efficiency of this new version of SVGD.Item Open Access An Efficient Pseudo-likelihood Method for Sparse Binary Pairwise Markov Network EstimationGeng, Sinong; Kuang, Zhaobin; Page, DavidThe pseudo-likelihood method is one of the most popular algorithms for learning sparse binary pairwise Markov networks. In this paper, we formulate the $L_1$ regularized pseudo-likelihood problem as a sparse multiple logistic regression problem. In this way, many insights and optimization procedures for sparse logistic regression can be applied to the learning of discrete Markov networks. Specifically, we use the coordinate descent algorithm for generalized linear models with convex penalties, combined with strong screening rules, to solve the pseudo-likelihood problem with $L_1$ regularization. Therefore a substantial speedup without losing any accuracy can be achieved. Furthermore, this method is more stable than the node-wise logistic regression approach on unbalanced high-dimensional data when penalized by small regularization parameters. Thorough numerical experiments on simulated data and real world data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.Item Open Access An Improved Multi-Output Gaussian Process RNN with Real-Time Validation for Early Sepsis Detection(2017-08-19) Futoma, Joseph; Hariharan, Sanjay; Sendak, Mark; Brajer, Nathan; Clement, Meredith; Bedoya, Armando; O'Brien, Cara; Heller, KatherineSepsis is a poorly understood and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur as a result of infection. Early detection and treatment improves patient outcomes, and as such it poses an important challenge in medicine. In this work, we develop a flexible classifier that leverages streaming lab results, vitals, and medications to predict sepsis before it occurs. We model patient clinical time series with multi-output Gaussian processes, maintaining uncertainty about the physiological state of a patient while also imputing missing values. The mean function takes into account the effects of medications administered on the trajectories of the physiological variables. Latent function values from the Gaussian process are then fed into a deep recurrent neural network to classify patient encounters as septic or not, and the overall model is trained end-to-end using back-propagation. We train and validate our model on a large dataset of 18 months of heterogeneous inpatient stays from the Duke University Health System, and develop a new "real-time" validation scheme for simulating the performance of our model as it will actually be used. Our proposed method substantially outperforms clinical baselines, and improves on a previous related model for detecting sepsis. Our model's predictions will be displayed in a real-time analytics dashboard to be used by a sepsis rapid response team to help detect and improve treatment of sepsis.Item Open Access Approximation of Functions over Manifolds: A Moving Least-Squares ApproachSober, B; Aizenbud, Y; Levin, DWe present an algorithm for approximating a function defined over a $d$-dimensional manifold utilizing only noisy function values at locations sampled from the manifold with noise. To produce the approximation we do not require any knowledge regarding the manifold other than its dimension $d$. We use the Manifold Moving Least-Squares approach of (Sober and Levin 2016) to reconstruct the atlas of charts and the approximation is built on-top of those charts. The resulting approximant is shown to be a function defined over a neighborhood of a manifold, approximating the originally sampled manifold. In other words, given a new point, located near the manifold, the approximation can be evaluated directly on that point. We prove that our construction yields a smooth function, and in case of noiseless samples the approximation order is $\mathcal{O}(h^{m+1})$, where $h$ is a local density of sample parameter (i.e., the fill distance) and $m$ is the degree of a local polynomial approximation, used in our algorithm. In addition, the proposed algorithm has linear time complexity with respect to the ambient-space's dimension. Thus, we are able to avoid the computational complexity, commonly encountered in high dimensional approximations, without having to perform non-linear dimension reduction, which inevitably introduces distortions to the geometry of the data. Additionaly, we show numerical experiments that the proposed approach compares favorably to statistical approaches for regression over manifolds and show its potential.Item Open Access Bayesian reconstruction of memories stored in neural networks from their connectivityGoldt, Sebastian; Krzakala, Florent; Zdeborová, Lenka; Brunel, NicolasThe advent of comprehensive synaptic wiring diagrams of large neural circuits has created the field of connectomics and given rise to a number of open research questions. One such question is whether it is possible to reconstruct the information stored in a recurrent network of neurons, given its synaptic connectivity matrix. Here, we address this question by determining when solving such an inference problem is theoretically possible in specific attractor network models and by providing a practical algorithm to do so. The algorithm builds on ideas from statistical physics to perform approximate Bayesian inference and is amenable to exact analysis. We study its performance on three different models and explore the limitations of reconstructing stored patterns from synaptic connectivity.Item Open Access Butterfly-Net: Optimal Function Representation Based on Convolutional Neural NetworksLi, Y; Cheng, X; Lu, JDeep networks, especially Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), have been successfully applied in various areas of machine learning as well as to challenging problems in other scientific and engineering fields. This paper introduces Butterfly-Net, a low-complexity CNN with structured hard-coded weights and sparse across-channel connections, which aims at an optimal hierarchical function representation of the input signal. Theoretical analysis of the approximation power of Butterfly-Net to the Fourier representation of input data shows that the error decays exponentially as the depth increases. Due to the ability of Butterfly-Net to approximate Fourier and local Fourier transforms, the result can be used for approximation upper bound for CNNs in a large class of problems. The analysis results are validated in numerical experiments on the approximation of a 1D Fourier kernel and of solving a 2D Poisson's equation.Item Open Access Complexity of zigzag sampling algorithm for strongly log-concave distributionsLu, Jianfeng; Wang, LihanWe study the computational complexity of zigzag sampling algorithm for strongly log-concave distributions. The zigzag process has the advantage of not requiring time discretization for implementation, and that each proposed bouncing event requires only one evaluation of partial derivative of the potential, while its convergence rate is dimension independent. Using these properties, we prove that the zigzag sampling algorithm achieves $\varepsilon$ error in chi-square divergence with a computational cost equivalent to $O\bigl(\kappa^2 d^\frac{1}{2}(\log\frac{1}{\varepsilon})^{\frac{3}{2}}\bigr)$ gradient evaluations in the regime $\kappa \ll \frac{d}{\log d}$ under a warm start assumption, where $\kappa$ is the condition number and $d$ is the dimension.Item Open Access Cross-Domain Multitask Learning with Latent Probit ModelsHan, S; Liao, X; Carin, LLearning multiple tasks across heterogeneous domains is a challenging problem since the feature space may not be the same for different tasks. We assume the data in multiple tasks are generated from a latent common domain via sparse domain transforms and propose a latent probit model (LPM) to jointly learn the domain transforms, and the shared probit classifier in the common domain. To learn meaningful task relatedness and avoid over-fitting in classification, we introduce sparsity in the domain transforms matrices, as well as in the common classifier. We derive theoretical bounds for the estimation error of the classifier in terms of the sparsity of domain transforms. An expectation-maximization algorithm is derived for learning the LPM. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on several real datasets.Item Open Access DCFNet: Deep Neural Network with Decomposed Convolutional Filters(35th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2018, 2018-01-01) Qiu, Q; Cheng, X; Calderbank, R; Sapiro, G©35th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2018.All Rights Reserved. Filters in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) contain model parameters learned from enormous amounts of data. In this paper, we suggest to decompose convolutional filters in CNN as a truncated expansion with pre-fixed bases, namely the Decomposed Convolutional Filters network (DCFNet), where the expansion coefficients remain learned from data. Such a structure not only reduces the number of trainable parameters and computation, but also imposes filter regularity by bases truncation. Through extensive experiments, we consistently observe that DCFNet maintains accuracy for image classification tasks with a significant reduction of model parameters, particularly with Fourier-Bessel (FB) bases, and even with random bases. Theoretically, we analyze the representation stability of DCFNet with respect to input variations, and prove representation stability under generic assumptions on the expansion coefficients. The analysis is consistent with the empirical observations.Item Open Access Expression of Fractals Through Neural Network FunctionsDym, N; Sober, B; Daubechies, ITo help understand the underlying mechanisms of neural networks (NNs), several groups have, in recent years, studied the number of linear regions $\ell$ of piecewise linear functions generated by deep neural networks (DNN). In particular, they showed that $\ell$ can grow exponentially with the number of network parameters $p$, a property often used to explain the advantages of DNNs over shallow NNs in approximating complicated functions. Nonetheless, a simple dimension argument shows that DNNs cannot generate all piecewise linear functions with $\ell$ linear regions as soon as $\ell > p$. It is thus natural to seek to characterize specific families of functions with $\ell$ linear regions that can be constructed by DNNs. Iterated Function Systems (IFS) generate sequences of piecewise linear functions $F_k$ with a number of linear regions exponential in $k$. We show that, under mild assumptions, $F_k$ can be generated by a NN using only $\mathcal{O}(k)$ parameters. IFS are used extensively to generate, at low computational cost, natural-looking landscape textures in artificial images. They have also been proposed for compression of natural images, albeit with less commercial success. The surprisingly good performance of this fractal-based compression suggests that our visual system may lock in, to some extent, on self-similarities in images. The combination of this phenomenon with the capacity, demonstrated here, of DNNs to efficiently approximate IFS may contribute to the success of DNNs, particularly striking for image processing tasks, as well as suggest new algorithms for representing self similarities in images based on the DNN mechanism.Item Open Access Finite-Time Frequentist Regret Bounds of Multi-Agent Thompson Sampling on Sparse Hypergraphs(2023-12-24) Jin, Tianyuan; Hsu, Hao-Lun; Chang, William; Xu, PanItem Open Access FLAME: A Fast Large-scale Almost Matching Exactly Approach to Causal Inference(2017-08-01) Wang, T; Morucci, M; Awan, MU; Liu, Y; Roy, S; Rudin, C; Volfovsky, AA classical problem in causal inference is that of matching, where treatment units need to be matched to control units. Some of the main challenges in developing matching methods arise from the tension among (i) inclusion of as many covariates as possible in defining the matched groups, (ii) having matched groups with enough treated and control units for a valid estimate of Average Treatment Effect (ATE) in each group, and (iii) computing the matched pairs efficiently for large datasets. In this paper we propose a fast and novel method for approximate and exact matching in causal analysis called FLAME (Fast Large-scale Almost Matching Exactly). We define an optimization objective for match quality, which gives preferences to matching on covariates that can be useful for predicting the outcome while encouraging as many matches as possible. FLAME aims to optimize our match quality measure, leveraging techniques that are natural for query processing in the area of database management. We provide two implementations of FLAME using SQL queries and bit-vector techniques.Item Open Access Global optimality of softmax policy gradient with single hidden layer neural networks in the mean-field regimeAgazzi, Andrea; Lu, JianfengWe study the problem of policy optimization for infinite-horizon discounted Markov Decision Processes with softmax policy and nonlinear function approximation trained with policy gradient algorithms. We concentrate on the training dynamics in the mean-field regime, modeling e.g., the behavior of wide single hidden layer neural networks, when exploration is encouraged through entropy regularization. The dynamics of these models is established as a Wasserstein gradient flow of distributions in parameter space. We further prove global optimality of the fixed points of this dynamics under mild conditions on their initialization.Item Open Access Hölder Bounds for Sensitivity Analysis in Causal Reasoning.(CoRR, 2021) Assaad, Serge; Zeng, Shuxi; Pfister, Henry; Li, Fan; Carin, LawrenceWe examine interval estimation of the effect of a treatment T on an outcome Y given the existence of an unobserved confounder U. Using H\"older's inequality, we derive a set of bounds on the confounding bias |E[Y|T=t]-E[Y|do(T=t)]| based on the degree of unmeasured confounding (i.e., the strength of the connection U->T, and the strength of U->Y). These bounds are tight either when U is independent of T or when U is independent of Y given T (when there is no unobserved confounding). We focus on a special case of this bound depending on the total variation distance between the distributions p(U) and p(U|T=t), as well as the maximum (over all possible values of U) deviation of the conditional expected outcome E[Y|U=u,T=t] from the average expected outcome E[Y|T=t]. We discuss possible calibration strategies for this bound to get interval estimates for treatment effects, and experimentally validate the bound using synthetic and semi-synthetic datasets.Item Open Access Inferring Latent Structure From Mixed Real and Categorical Relational DataSalazar, E; Cain, MS; Darling, EF; Mitroff, SR; Carin, LWe consider analysis of relational data (a matrix), in which the rows correspond to subjects (e.g., people) and the columns correspond to attributes. The elements of the matrix may be a mix of real and categorical. Each subject and attribute is characterized by a latent binary feature vector, and an inferred matrix maps each row-column pair of binary feature vectors to an observed matrix element. The latent binary features of the rows are modeled via a multivariate Gaussian distribution with low-rank covariance matrix, and the Gaussian random variables are mapped to latent binary features via a probit link. The same type construction is applied jointly to the columns. The model infers latent, low-dimensional binary features associated with each row and each column, as well correlation structure between all rows and between all columns.Item Open Access Machine Learning to Predict Developmental Neurotoxicity with High-throughput Data from 2D Bio-engineered TissuesKuusisto, Finn; Costa, Vitor Santos; Hou, Zhonggang; Thomson, James; Page, David; Stewart, RonThere is a growing need for fast and accurate methods for testing developmental neurotoxicity across several chemical exposure sources. Current approaches, such as in vivo animal studies, and assays of animal and human primary cell cultures, suffer from challenges related to time, cost, and applicability to human physiology. We previously demonstrated success employing machine learning to predict developmental neurotoxicity using gene expression data collected from human 3D tissue models exposed to various compounds. The 3D model is biologically similar to developing neural structures, but its complexity necessitates extensive expertise and effort to employ. By instead focusing solely on constructing an assay of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose that a simpler 2D tissue model may prove sufficient. We thus compare the accuracy of predictive models trained on data from a 2D tissue model with those trained on data from a 3D tissue model, and find the 2D model to be substantially more accurate. Furthermore, we find the 2D model to be more robust under stringent gene set selection, whereas the 3D model suffers substantial accuracy degradation. While both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, we propose that our described 2D approach could be a valuable tool for decision makers when prioritizing neurotoxicity screening.Item Open Access Microclustering: When the Cluster Sizes Grow Sublinearly with the Size of the Data SetMiller, Jeffrey; Betancourt, Brenda; Zaidi, Abbas; Wallach, Hanna; Steorts, Rebecca CMost generative models for clustering implicitly assume that the number of data points in each cluster grows linearly with the total number of data points. Finite mixture models, Dirichlet process mixture models, and Pitman--Yor process mixture models make this assumption, as do all other infinitely exchangeable clustering models. However, for some tasks, this assumption is undesirable. For example, when performing entity resolution, the size of each cluster is often unrelated to the size of the data set. Consequently, each cluster contains a negligible fraction of the total number of data points. Such tasks therefore require models that yield clusters whose sizes grow sublinearly with the size of the data set. We address this requirement by defining the \emph{microclustering property} and introducing a new model that exhibits this property. We compare this model to several commonly used clustering models by checking model fit using real and simulated data sets.Item Open Access Privacy-Preserving Collaborative Prediction using Random ForestsGiacomelli, Irene; Jha, Somesh; Kleiman, Ross; Page, David; Yoon, KyonghwanWe study the problem of privacy-preserving machine learning (PPML) for ensemble methods, focusing our effort on random forests. In collaborative analysis, PPML attempts to solve the conflict between the need for data sharing and privacy. This is especially important in privacy sensitive applications such as learning predictive models for clinical decision support from EHR data from different clinics, where each clinic has a responsibility for its patients' privacy. We propose a new approach for ensemble methods: each entity learns a model, from its own data, and then when a client asks the prediction for a new private instance, the answers from all the locally trained models are used to compute the prediction in such a way that no extra information is revealed. We implement this approach for random forests and we demonstrate its high efficiency and potential accuracy benefit via experiments on real-world datasets, including actual EHR data.Item Open Access RotDCF: Decomposition of Convolutional Filters for Rotation-Equivariant Deep Networks.(CoRR, 2018) Cheng, X; Qiu, Q; Calderbank, R; Sapiro, GExplicit encoding of group actions in deep features makes it possible for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to handle global deformations of images, which is critical to success in many vision tasks. This paper proposes to decompose the convolutional filters over joint steerable bases across the space and the group geometry simultaneously, namely a rotation-equivariant CNN with decomposed convolutional filters (RotDCF). This decomposition facilitates computing the joint convolution, which is proved to be necessary for the group equivariance. It significantly reduces the model size and computational complexity while preserving performance, and truncation of the bases expansion serves implicitly to regularize the filters. On datasets involving in-plane and out-of-plane object rotations, RotDCF deep features demonstrate greater robustness and interpretability than regular CNNs. The stability of the equivariant representation to input variations is also proved theoretically under generic assumptions on the filters in the decomposed form. The RotDCF framework can be extended to groups other than rotations, providing a general approach which achieves both group equivariance and representation stability at a reduced model size.