Examining the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a post-9/11 U.S. military veteran sample.
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The present study examined the structural validity of the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a large sample of U.S. veterans with military service since September 11, 2001. Participants (N = 1,981) completed the 25-item CD-RISC, a structured clinical interview and a self-report questionnaire assessing psychiatric symptoms. The study sample was randomly divided into two subsamples: an initial sample (Sample 1: n = 990) and a replication sample (Sample 2: n = 991). Findings derived from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) did not support the five-factor analytic structure as initially suggested in Connor and Davidson's instrument validation study. Although parallel analyses indicated a two-factor structural model, we tested one to six factor solutions for best model fit using confirmatory factor analysis. Results supported a two-factor model of resilience, composed of adaptability- (8 items) and self-efficacy-themed (6 items) items; however, only the adaptability-themed factor was found to be consistent with our view of resilience-a factor of protection against the development of psychopathology following trauma exposure. The adaptability-themed factor may be a useful measure of resilience for post-9/11 U.S. military veterans.
SubjectConnor–Davidson Resilience Scale
exploratory factor analysis
Depressive Disorder, Major
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Reproducibility of Results
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
Surveys and Questionnaires
Published Version (Please cite this version)10.1177/1073191114524014
Publication InfoBeckham, JC; Bryan, BC; Calhoun, PS; Davidson, Jonathan RT; Dennis, Paul Anthony; Green, KT; ... Williams, AM (2014). Examining the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a post-9/11 U.S. military veteran sample. Assessment, 21(4). pp. 443-451. 10.1177/1073191114524014. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/13044.
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Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Currently, my research focuses upon the theoretical aspects of homeopathy and its clinical utilization, as well as the broader field of alternative (complementary) medicine. this is a field which has traditionally been overlooked as a legitimate scientific discipline. Other areas of activity are as in the past, i.e., clinical treatment, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress, social phobia, other anxiety status, and depression. These are illustrated by recent pu
Associate Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Research focused on cardiovascular risk associated with psychiatric illness and trauma exposure, intraindivdiual variability in symptoms and affect, and the use of mobile apps and devices for health and behavior monitoring and interventions. Interest in longitudinal and repeated-measures analyses, including mixed modeling, mixture modeling, and structural equation modeling.
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