Analysis and Error Correction in Structures of Macromolecular Interiors and Interfaces
As of late 2009, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) has grown to contain over 70,000 models. This recent increase in the amount of structural data allows for more extensive explication of the governing principles of macromolecular folding and association to complement traditional studies focused on a single molecule or complex. PDB-wide characterization of structural features yields insights that are useful in prediction and validation of the 3D structure of macromolecules and their complexes. Here, these insights lead to a deeper understanding of protein--protein interfaces, full-atom critical assessment of increasingly more accurate structure predictions, a better defined library of RNA backbone conformers for validation and building 3D models, and knowledge-based automatic correction of errors in protein sidechain rotamers.
My study of protein--protein interfaces identifies amino acid pairing preferences in a set of 146 transient interfaces. Using a geometric interface surface definition devoid of arbitrary cutoffs common to previous studies of interface composition, I calculate inter- and intrachain amino acid pairing preferences. As expected, salt-bridges and hydrophobic patches are prevalent, but likelihood correction of observed pairing frequencies reveals some surprising pairing preferences, such as Cys-His interchain pairs and Met-Met intrachain pairs. To complement my statistical observations, I introduce a 2D visualization of the 3D interface surface that can display a variety of interface characteristics, including residue type, atomic distance and backbone/sidechain composition.
My study of protein interiors finds that 3D structure prediction from sequence (as part of the CASP experiment) is very close to full-atom accuracy. Validation of structure prediction should therefore consider all atom positions instead of the traditional Calpha-only evaluation. I introduce six new full-model quality criteria to assess the accuracy of CASP predictions, which demonstrate that groups who use structural knowledge culled from the PDB to inform their prediction protocols produce the most accurate results.
My study of RNA backbone introduces a set of rotamer-like "suite" conformers. Initially hand-identified by the Richardson laboratory, these 7D conformers represent backbone segments that are found to be genuine and favorable. X-ray crystallographers can use backbone conformers for model building in often poor backbone density and in validation after refinement. Increasing amounts of high quality RNA data allow for improved conformer identification, but also complicate hand-curation. I demonstrate that affinity propagation successfully differentiates between two related but distinct suite conformers, and is a useful tool for automated conformer clustering.
My study of protein sidechain rotamers in X-ray structures identifies a class of systematic errors that results in sidechains misfit by approximately 180 degrees. I introduce Autofix, a method for automated detection and correction of such errors. Autofix corrects over 40% of errors for Leu, Thr, and Val residues, and a significant number of Arg residues. On average, Autofix made four corrections per PDB file in 945 X-ray structures. Autofix will be implemented into MolProbity and PHENIX for easy integration into X-ray crystallography workflows.
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