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Brand Loyalty, Entry, and Price Competition in Pharmaceuticals after the 1984 Drug Act
IN 1984, Congress enacted a new law that greatly affected the economics of the pharmaceutical industry in the United States. It has been characterized as the most important legislation affecting competition in the pharmaceutical ...
R&d Costs, Innovative Output and Firm Size in the Pharmaceutical Industry
(International Journal of the Economics of Business, 1995-01-01)
This study examines the relationships between firm size, R&D costs and output in the pharmaceutical industry. Project-level data from a survey of 12 US-owned pharmaceutical firms on drug development costs, development phase ...
A New Look at the Returns and Risks to Pharmaceutical R&D
This study investigates the returns to R&D for 100 new drugs introduced into the United States during the decade of the 1970s. In contrast to prior studies, it incorporates several significant structural changes that have ...
Returns to R&D on new drug introductions in the 1980s.
(J Health Econ, 1994-12)
This study finds that the mean IRR for 1980-84 U.S. new drug introductions is 11.1%, and the mean NPV is 22 million (1990 dollars). The distribution of returns is highly skewed. The results are robust to plausible changes ...