Pain Catastrophizing, Kinesiophobia, Stress, Depression, and Poor Resiliency Are Associated With Pain and Dysfunction in the Hip Preservation Population.

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2023-12

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Abstract

Background

Psychiatric disorders are known to have a negative impact on outcomes attained from hip-preservation surgery. Psychosocial traits such as resiliency and pain avoidance likely also affect treatment outcomes, however these characteristics are less easily identified, and data is lacking supporting their presence and impact on related outcomes within the hip preservation population. We therefore evaluated hip preservation patients for a variety of maladaptive psychosocial traits and assessed patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in order to ascertain which specific traits were most associated with hip pain and dysfunction.

Methods

62 subjects aged 15-49 years presenting for evaluation of a nonarthritic hip condition completed psychosocial questionnaires and patient reported outcome measures via electronic survey as listed in table one. Participants were tested again eight weeks later to evaluate the relationship between changes in physical function, pain, and mental health behaviors. Pearson correlation coefficients assessed association between hip PROs and psychosocial tests and analyses were corrected for multiple comparisons.

Results

Pain Catastrophizing (PCS), Kinesiophobia (TSK), Stress, and PROMIS-Global Mental Health (GMH) scores correlated with poor physical function and high pain scores at zero and eight weeks. Low resiliency (BRS) and depression were also associated with elevated pain on PRO tests as well as HOOS-Physical Function. There was a moderately strong correlation between improvement in PROMIS-Physical Function (PF) from zero to eight weeks and subjects initial scores for kinesiophobia, anxiety, and stress (r= -0.45, -0.41, -0.44, all p<0.05).

Conclusion

PCS, TSK, Stress, Depression, and low BRS are associated with pain and disability in hip preservation subjects. Elevated TSK, Anxiety and Stress may be predictors of failure to improve with nonoperative treatment. These psychosocial characteristics should be investigated further as predictors of clinical outcomes in the hip preservation population. Level of Evidence: II.

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