Smoking cessation interventions for adults aged 50 or older: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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The older population size has increased substantially, and a considerable proportion of older adults are cigarette smokers. Quitting smoking is associated with reduced health risk. This review is among the first to quantitatively assess the relative efficacy of types of cessation interventions for smokers aged ≥50 years.We conducted searches of the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO to identify smoking cessation studies on adults aged ≥50 years. Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Three main types of interventions were identified. We analyzed relative cessation rates or Risk Ratios (RRs) between the type of intervention groups and the control group by fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses at the study level. We conducted a weighted least squares meta-regression of cessation rates on trial and sample characteristics to determine sources of outcome heterogeneity.Fixed-effects analysis showed significant treatment effects for pharmacological (RR=3.18, 95% CI: 1.89-5.36), non-pharmacological (RR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.67-1.94), and multimodal interventions (RR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.41-1.84) compared with control group. Estimations based on meta-regression suggested that pharmacological intervention (mean point prevalence abstinence rate (PPA)=26.10%, CI: 15.20-37.00) resembled non-pharmacological (27.97%, CI: 24.00-31.94), and multimodal interventions (36.64%, CI: 31.66-41.62); and non-pharmacological and multimodal interventions had higher PPAs than the control group (18.80%, CI: 14.48-23.12), after adjusting for a number of trial and sample characteristics.A small number of smoking cessation studies examined smokers aged ≥50 years. Additional research is recommended to determine smoking cessation efficacy for diverse older population groups (e.g., ethnic minorities).





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Chen, Danhong, and Li-Tzy Wu (2015). Smoking cessation interventions for adults aged 50 or older: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug and alcohol dependence, 154. pp. 14–24. 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.06.004 Retrieved from

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Li-Tzy Wu

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Education/Training: Pre- and post-doctoral training in mental health service research, psychiatric epidemiology (NIMH T32), and addiction epidemiology (NIDA T32) from Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health (Maryland); Fellow of the NIH Summer Institute on the Design and Conduct of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Director: Duke Community Based Substance Use Disorder Research Program.

Research interests: COVID-19, Opioid misuse, Opioid overdose, Opioid use disorder, Opioid addiction prevention and treatment, Pain and addiction, Chronic diseases and substance use disorders, diabetes, pharmacy-based care models and services, medication treatment for opioid use disorder (MOUD), Drug overdose, Polysubstance use and disorders, cannabis, alcohol, tobacco, hallucinogens, stimulants, e-cigarette, SBIRT (substance use Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment), EHR-based research and intervention, data science, psychometric analysis (IRT), epidemiology of addictions and comorbidity, behavioral health care integration, health services research (mental health disorders, substance use disorders, chronic diseases), nosology, research design, HIV risk behavior. 

FUNDED Research projects (Principal Investigator [PI], Site PI, or Sub-award PI): 
R03: Substance use/dependence (PI).
R21: Treatment use for alcohol use disorders (PI).
R21: Inhalant use & disorders (PI).
R01: MDMA/hallucinogen use/disorders (PI).
R01: Prescription pain reliever (opioids) misuse and use disorders (PI).
R01: Substance use disorders in adolescents (PI).
R21: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R33: CTN Substance use diagnoses & treatment (PI).
R01: Evolution of Psychopathology in the Population (ECA Duke site PI).
R01: Substance use disorders and treatment use among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (PI).
UG1: SBIRT in Primary Care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: TAPS Tool, Substance use screening tool validation in primary care (NIDA, PI).
UG1: NIDA CTN Mid-Southern Node (Clinical Trials Network, PI).
UG1: EHR Data Element Study (NIDA, PI).
UG1: Buprenorphine Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration in the Management of Patients With Opioid Use Disorder (NIDA, PI).
PCORI: INSPIRE-Integrated Health Services to Reduce Opioid Use While Managing Chronic Pain (Site PI).
CDC R01: Evaluation of state-mandated acute and post-surgical pain-specific CDC opioid prescribing (Site PI).
Pilot: Measuring Opioid Use Disorders in Secondary Electronic Health Records Data (Carolinas Collaborative Grant: Duke PI).
R21: Developing a prevention model of alcohol use disorder for Pacific Islander young adults (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Subthreshold Opioid Use Disorder Prevention Trial (NIH HEAL Initiative) (NIDA supplement, CTN-0101, Investigator).
NIDA: A Pilot Study to Permit Opioid Treatment Program Physicians to Prescribe Methadone through Community Pharmacies for their Stable Methadone Patients (NIDA/FRI: Study PI).
UG1: Integrating pharmacy-based prevention and treatment of opioid and other substance use disorders: A survey of pharmacists and stakeholder (NIH HEAL Initiative, NIDA, PI).
UG1: NorthStar Node of the Clinical Trials Network (NIDA, Site PI).
R34: Intervention Development and Pilot Study to Reduce Untreated Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Opioid Use Disorders (Subaward PI, Investigator).
UG1: Optimal Policies to Improve Methadone Maintenance Adherence Longterm (OPTIMMAL Study) (NIDA, Site PI).
R01: Increasing access to opioid use disorder treatment by opening pharmacy-based medication units of opioid treatment programs (NIDA, PI)

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