Effect of maternal obesity on Maternal-Fetal transfer of preoperative cefazolin at cesarean section

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2017-05-01

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Groff, SM
Fallatah, W
Yang, S
Murphy, J
Crutchfield, C
Marzinke, M
Kurtzberg, J
Lee, CKK
Burd, I
Azadeh, F

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends a single dose of antibiotic prophylaxis before all cesarean sections (C/S). This recommendation is based on pharmacokinetic studies that include only non-obese patients. We sought to evaluate 1) cefazolin plasma concentrations among obese and non-obese patients after administration of a 2-g cefazolin dose for prevention of surgical wound infections, and 2) whether cefazolin concentration in fetal circulation may be protective against pathogens that cause early onset neonatal sepsis. METHODS Maternal and fetal cefazolin plasma concentrations were compared between obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2) healthy, term pregnant women undergoing scheduled C/S. Liquid chromatographic–tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) methods were used for quantification of total and free cefazolin concentrations in maternal blood (MB) and umbilical cord blood (UCB). RESULTS Eight women were screened and consented. There was no difference between groups in MB total and free cefazolin concentrations. All MB samples had total and free cefazolin concentrations greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS), Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. All UCB samples had total and free cefazolin concentrations greater than MIC90 for GBS and S aureus, even when administered as briefly as 18 minutes before delivery. A lower concentration of total cefazolin was detected in UCB of neonates of obese women compared to non-obese women (p > 0.05).CONCLUSIONS Administration of 2 g of cefazolin to women undergoing scheduled C/S might be an adequate prophylactic dose for surgical wound infection in both non-obese and obese patients; and cefazolin concentration in fetal circulation may be protective against GBS and S aureus.

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10.5863/1551-6776-22.3.227

Publication Info

Groff, SM, W Fallatah, S Yang, J Murphy, C Crutchfield, M Marzinke, J Kurtzberg, CKK Lee, et al. (2017). Effect of maternal obesity on Maternal-Fetal transfer of preoperative cefazolin at cesarean section. Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 22(3). pp. 227–232. 10.5863/1551-6776-22.3.227 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/24599.

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Scholars@Duke

Kurtzberg

Joanne Kurtzberg

Jerome S. Harris Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics

Dr. Kurtzberg is an internationally renowned expert in pediatric hematology/oncology, pediatric blood and marrow transplantation, umbilical cord blood banking and transplantation, and novel applications of cord blood and birthing tissues in the emerging fields of cellular therapies and regenerative medicine.   Dr. Kurtzberg serves as the Director of the Marcus Center for Cellular Cures (MC3), Director of the Pediatric Transplant and Cellular Therapy Program, Director of the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, and Co-Director of the Stem Cell Transplant Laboratory at Duke University.  The Carolinas Cord Blood Bank is an FDA licensed public cord blood bank distributing unrelated cord blood units for donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) through the CW Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program.  The Robertson GMP Cell Manufacturing Laboratory supports manufacturing of RETHYMIC (BLA, Enzyvant, 2021), allogeneic cord tissue derived and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and DUOC, a microglial/macrophage cell derived from cord blood.

Dr. Kurtzberg’s research in MC3 focuses on translational studies from bench to bedside, seeking to develop transformative clinical therapies using cells, tissues, molecules, genes, and biomaterials to treat diseases and injuries that currently lack effective treatments. Recent areas of investigation in MC3 include clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of autologous and allogeneic cord blood in children with neonatal brain injury – hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral palsy (CP), and autism. Clinical trials testing allogeneic cord blood are also being conducted in adults with acute ischemic stroke. Clinical trials optimizing manufacturing and testing the safety and efficacy of cord tissue MSCs in children with autism, CP and HIE and adults with COVID-lung disease are underway. DUOC, given intrathecally, is under study in children with leukodystrophies and adults with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

In the past, Dr. Kurtzberg has developed novel chemotherapeutic drugs for acute leukemias, assays enumerating ALDH bright cells to predict cord blood unit potency, methods of cord blood expansion, potency assays for targeted cell and tissue based therapies. Dr. Kurtzberg currently holds several INDs for investigational clinical trials from the FDA.  She has also trained numerous medical students, residents, clinical and post-doctoral fellows over the course of her career.


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