An atlas of protected hydrothermal vents

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Active hydrothermal vents are valued worldwide because of the importance of their biodiversity and their influence on scientific discovery and insight about life on Earth and elsewhere in the Universe. There exist at least 20 areas and area networks with conservation measures for deep-sea hydrothermal vents, established by 12 countries and three Regional Fisheries Management Organisations, in six oceanic regions. Area-based management tools (ABMT) implemented by these countries illustrate multiple categories and means of protection and management of these rare and vulnerable habitats. Some ABMTs only regulate bottom and deep-trawling fisheries activities, others manage additional activities such as mining, scientific research, and bioprospecting, while still others protect active hydrothermal vents through broad conservation interventions. This atlas summarizes the “who”, “what”, “when”, “where” of protected hydrothermal vents worldwide and underscores recognition of the importance of hydrothermal-vent ecosystems by coastal States.






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Menini, E, and CL Van Dover (2019). An atlas of protected hydrothermal vents. Marine Policy, 108. pp. 103654–103654. 10.1016/j.marpol.2019.103654 Retrieved from

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Elisabetta Menini


Betta is a PhD candidate at the Duke Marine Lab, her background is in Marine Biology and Maritime Spatial Planning. Her academic experience includes studies in invertebrate’s biology and phylogenetic, maritime geopolitics, marine spatial planning carried out across Europe, Australia, and US.

Her PhD currently focuses on deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the context of deep seabed mining on the science-policy interface. Her final aim is to inform policy and decision-making processes with the best available science and best practices examples to implement the use of Area Based Management Tools to protect and manage the deep-sea environment. With the technical team of the Marine Geospatial Ecology Lab, she has been involved in the recent Workshops of the International Seabed Authority for the development of the Regional Environmental Management Plans on the Area. 

Van Dover

Cindy Van Dover

Harvey W. Smith Distinguished Professor of Biological Oceanography in the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences

Dr. Cindy Lee Van Dover is a deep-sea biologist with an interest in ocean exploration and the ecology of chemosynthetic ecosystems. She began her work in this field in 1982, joining the first biological expedition to hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise. After earning a Master's degree in ecology from UCLA in 1985, she continued her graduate education in the MIT/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Biological Oceanography. There she joined numerous expeditions and published on diverse topics such as reproductive strategies and recruitment of vent invertebrates, vent food webs, and taxonomic descriptions of new species. In 1989, she described a novel photoreceptor in a vent invertebrate, which in turn led to discovery and characterization of a geothermal source of light at vents and investigations of its biological significance. On receiving her Ph.D. in 1989, Van Dover joined the group that operates the deep-diving submersible ALVIN. She qualified as pilot in 1990 and was pilot-in-command of 48 dives. Her work with ALVIN and other deep-submergence assets has taken her to nearly all of the known vent fields in the Atlantic and Pacific, as well as to deep-water seamounts, seeps, and other significant seafloor features. Her current research focuses primarily on the study of biodiversity, biogeography, and connectivity of invertebrates from chemosynthetic ecosystems and invertebrate functional anatomy.  in addition, she is active in developing pre-industrialization policy and management strategies for deep-sea resources. She has published more than 80 articles in peer-reviewed journals and is an active participant and Chief Scientist in NSF-and NOAA-sponsored field programs to deep-sea environments. 
In addition to research, Van Dover has authored a popular book for the lay audience about the deep sea and her experiences as an ALVIN pilot (Deep-Ocean Journeys; Addison-Wesley, 1997, a.k.a. The Octopus's Garden). She is also the author of the first textbook on hydrothermal vents (The Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents; Princeton University Press, 2000). Van Dover is curator of Beyond the Edge of the Sea, a traveling exhibition of illustrations of deep-sea organisms and environments by artist Karen Jacobsen ( and is currently project lead for Science and Art at the Moment of Discovery, hosting 6 artists (water color, acrylic, experimental media, batik) on a deep-sea research expedition in June 2012.  Her work has been featured in Science News, Discover Magazine, The New York Times, and National Public Radio. Dr. Van Dover was named Virginia Outstanding Scientist in 2006 and is a Fulbright Scholar (France 2004), Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Distinguished Lecturer for the NSF Ridge 2000 Program. She is the inaugural recipient of the Mines Medal for exceptional leadership and innovation, a George Hammell Cook Distinguished Alumni Award (Cook College, Rutgers University), a Career Awardee from the National Science Foundation, and a William & Mary Alumni Fellowship Awardee for Outstanding Teaching. She is currently the Harvey W Smith Distinguished Professor of Biological Oceanography at Duke University, Chair of the Division of Marine Science and Conservation, and Director of the Duke University Marine Laboratory in Beaufort, N.C.

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