Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with omidubicel in sickle cell disease.

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2021-02

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Abstract

Many patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) do not have HLA-matched related donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Unrelated cord blood (UCB) is an alternative graft option but is historically associated with high graft failure rates, with inadequate cell dose a major limitation. Omidubicel is a nicotinamide-based, ex vivo-expanded UCB product associated with rapid engraftment in adults with hematologic malignancies. We hypothesized that increasing the UCB cell dose with this strategy would lead to improved engraftment in pediatric patients undergoing myeloablative HSCT for SCD. We report the outcomes of a phase 1/2 study in 13 patients with severe SCD who received omidubicel in combination with an unmanipulated UCB graft and 3 who received a single omidubicel graft. Grafts were minimally matched with patients at 4 of 6 HLA alleles. Median age at transplant was 13 years. A median CD34+ expansion of ∼80-fold was observed in omidubicel and led to rapid neutrophil engraftment (median, 7 days). Long-term engraftment was derived from the unmanipulated graft in most of the double cord blood recipients. Two of the 3 single omidubicel recipients also had sustained engraftment. Incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was high, but resolved in all surviving patients. Event-free survival in the double cord group was 85% (median follow-up 4 years). All 3 patients in the single cord group were alive at 1 year after transplantation. Ex vivo expansion of UCB with omidubicel supports engraftment in patients with SCD. This approach to decreasing the incidence of GVHD should be optimized for general use in patients with SCD. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01590628.

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10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003248

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Parikh, Suhag, Joel A Brochstein, Einat Galamidi, Aurélie Schwarzbach and Joanne Kurtzberg (2021). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with omidubicel in sickle cell disease. Blood advances, 5(3). pp. 843–852. 10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003248 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/24710.

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Scholars@Duke

Kurtzberg

Joanne Kurtzberg

Jerome S. Harris Distinguished Professor of Pediatrics

Dr. Kurtzberg is an internationally renowned expert in pediatric hematology/oncology, pediatric blood and marrow transplantation, umbilical cord blood banking and transplantation, and novel applications of cord blood and birthing tissues in the emerging fields of cellular therapies and regenerative medicine.   Dr. Kurtzberg serves as the Director of the Marcus Center for Cellular Cures (MC3), Director of the Pediatric Transplant and Cellular Therapy Program, Director of the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, and Co-Director of the Stem Cell Transplant Laboratory at Duke University.  The Carolinas Cord Blood Bank is an FDA licensed public cord blood bank distributing unrelated cord blood units for donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) through the CW Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program.  The Robertson GMP Cell Manufacturing Laboratory supports manufacturing of RETHYMIC (BLA, Enzyvant, 2021), allogeneic cord tissue derived and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and DUOC, a microglial/macrophage cell derived from cord blood.

Dr. Kurtzberg’s research in MC3 focuses on translational studies from bench to bedside, seeking to develop transformative clinical therapies using cells, tissues, molecules, genes, and biomaterials to treat diseases and injuries that currently lack effective treatments. Recent areas of investigation in MC3 include clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of autologous and allogeneic cord blood in children with neonatal brain injury – hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), cerebral palsy (CP), and autism. Clinical trials testing allogeneic cord blood are also being conducted in adults with acute ischemic stroke. Clinical trials optimizing manufacturing and testing the safety and efficacy of cord tissue MSCs in children with autism, CP and HIE and adults with COVID-lung disease are underway. DUOC, given intrathecally, is under study in children with leukodystrophies and adults with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

In the past, Dr. Kurtzberg has developed novel chemotherapeutic drugs for acute leukemias, assays enumerating ALDH bright cells to predict cord blood unit potency, methods of cord blood expansion, potency assays for targeted cell and tissue based therapies. Dr. Kurtzberg currently holds several INDs for investigational clinical trials from the FDA.  She has also trained numerous medical students, residents, clinical and post-doctoral fellows over the course of her career.


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