Clinical and Genomic Characterization of Recurrent Enterococcal Bloodstream Infection in Patients With Acute Leukemia.


Rates and risk factors for recurrent enterococcal bloodstream infection (R-EBSI) and whether the same genetic lineage causes index EBSI and R-EBSI are unknown in patients with acute leukemia (AL) receiving chemotherapy.Ninety-two AL patients with EBSI from 2010 to 2015 were included. Enterococcal bloodstream infection was defined by 31 positive blood cultures for Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis and fever, hypotension, or chills. Clearance was defined by 31 negative cultures 324 hours after last positive culture and defervescence. Recurrent enterococcal bloodstream infection was defined by a positive blood culture for Enterococcus 324 hours after clearance. Categorical variables were reported as proportions and compared by the χ2 test. Continuous variables were summarized by median and interquartile range (IQR) and compared by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test. P values <.05 were considered significant. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on available paired BSI isolates from 7 patients.Twenty-four patients (26%) had 31 episodes of R-EBSI. Median time to R-EBSI (IQR) was 26 (13-50) days. Patients with R-EBSI had significantly longer durations of fever and metronidazole exposure during their index EBSI. Thirty-nine percent of E. faecium R-EBSI isolates became daptomycin-nonsusceptible Enterococcus (DNSE) following daptomycin therapy for index EBSI. Whole-genome sequencing analysis confirmed high probability of genetic relatedness of index EBSI and R-EBSI isolates for 4/7 patients.Recurrent enterococcal bloodstream infection and DNSE are common in patients with AL and tend to occur within the first 30 days of index EBSI. Duration of fever and metronidazole exposure may be useful in determining risk for R-EBSI. Whole-genome sequencing analysis demonstrates that the same strain causes both EBSI and R-EBSI in some patients.





Published Version (Please cite this version)


Publication Info

Messina, Julia A, Rohita Sinha, Kimberly Starr, Mehreen Arshad, Barbara D Alexander, Nelson J Chao and Anthony D Sung (2018). Clinical and Genomic Characterization of Recurrent Enterococcal Bloodstream Infection in Patients With Acute Leukemia. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 5(6). p. ofy107. 10.1093/ofid/ofy107 Retrieved from

This is constructed from limited available data and may be imprecise. To cite this article, please review & use the official citation provided by the journal.



Julia Antoinette Messina

Assistant Professor of Medicine

I am a Transplant Infectious Diseases Physician who specializes in the care of immunocompromised patients including solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients and patients with HIV. My research interests are in infections and clinical outcomes in patients with hematologic malignancies.


Barbara Dudley Alexander

Professor of Medicine

Clinical research related to infectious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation, with a particular interest in the treatment and rapid diagnosis of fungal disease. Training the next generation of Transplant Infectious Disease Physicians is a special focus of mine as the Principal Investigator of our Interdisciplinary T32 Training Program funded the NIH. 

Unless otherwise indicated, scholarly articles published by Duke faculty members are made available here with a CC-BY-NC (Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial) license, as enabled by the Duke Open Access Policy. If you wish to use the materials in ways not already permitted under CC-BY-NC, please consult the copyright owner. Other materials are made available here through the author’s grant of a non-exclusive license to make their work openly accessible.