Frailty and length of stay in older adults with blunt injury in a national multicentre prospective cohort study.



Patients suffering moderate or severe injury after low falls have higher readmission and long-term mortality rates compared to patients injured by high-velocity mechanisms such as motor vehicle accidents. We hypothesize that this is due to higher pre-injury frailty in low-fall patients, and present baseline patient and frailty demographics of a prospective cohort of moderate and severely injured older patients. Our second hypothesis was that frailty was associated with longer length of stay (LOS) at index admission.


This is a prospective, nation-wide, multi-center cohort study of Singaporean residents aged ≥55 years admitted for ≥48 hours after blunt injury with an injury severity score or new injury severity score ≥10, or an Organ Injury Scale ≥3, in public hospitals from 2016-2018. Demographics, mechanism of injury and frailty were recorded and analysed by Chi-square, or Kruskal-Wallis as appropriate.


218 participants met criteria and survived the index admission. Low fall patients had the highest proportion of frailty (44, 27.3%), followed by higher level fallers (3, 21.4%) and motor vehicle accidents (1, 2.3%) (p < .01). Injury severity, extreme age, and surgery were independently associated with longer LOS. Frail patients were paradoxically noted to have shorter LOS (p < .05).


Patients sustaining moderate or severe injury after low falls are more likely to be frail compared to patients injured after higher-velocity mechanisms. However, this did not translate into longer adjusted LOS in hospital at index admission.






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Publication Info

Tan, Timothy Xin Zhong, Nivedita V Nadkarni, Wei Chong Chua, Lynette Ma Loo, Philip Tsau Choong Iau, Arron Seng Hock Ang, Jerry Tiong Thye Goo, Kim Chai Chan, et al. (2021). Frailty and length of stay in older adults with blunt injury in a national multicentre prospective cohort study. PloS one, 16(4). p. e0250803. 10.1371/journal.pone.0250803 Retrieved from

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David Bruce Matchar

Professor of Medicine

My research relates to clinical practice improvement - from the development of clinical policies to their implementation in real world clinical settings. Most recently my major content focus has been cerebrovascular disease. Other major clinical areas in which I work include the range of disabling neurological conditions, cardiovascular disease, and cancer prevention.
Notable features of my work are: (1) reliance on analytic strategies such as meta-analysis, simulation, decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis; (2) a balancing of methodological rigor the needs of medical professionals; and (3) dependence on interdisciplinary groups of experts.
This approach is best illustrated by the Stroke Prevention Patient Outcome Research Team (PORT), for which I served as principal investigator. Funded by the AHCPR, the PORT involved 35 investigators at 13 institutions. The Stroke PORT has been highly productive and has led to a stroke prevention project funded as a public/private partnership by the AHCPR and DuPont Pharma, the Managing Anticoagulation Services Trial (MAST). MAST is a practice improvement trial in 6 managed care organizations, focussing on optimizing anticoagulation for individuals with atrial fibrillation.
I serve as consultant in the general area of analytic strategies for clinical policy development, as well as for specific projects related to stroke (e.g., acute stroke treatment, management of atrial fibrillation, and use of carotid endarterectomy.) I have worked with AHCPR (now AHRQ), ACP, AHA, AAN, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, NSA, WHO, and several pharmaceutical companies.
Key Words: clinical policy, disease management, stroke, decision analysis, clinical guidelines

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