Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: Presentation and outcomes of adults at a single center.

Abstract

Background/introduction

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) is a chronic demyelinating disorder that has been increasingly recognized since the serum antibody became commercially available in 2017. The most common clinical presentation is optic neuritis, and first line acute treatment is intravenous (IV) steroids. However, there are many questions that remain unanswered. For clinicians and patients, the primary question is whether relapses will occur and whether to treat with chronic therapy.

Methods

This retrospective chart review examined characteristics of thirty-three known adult MOGAD cases at a single institute. Data was collected on patient demographics, clinical presentation, objective diagnosis with MRI and serum antibody levels, acute and chronic treatment and disease outcomes.

Results

Our MOGAD cases revealed a slight female to male predominance of 1.5:1. No racial groups were affected disproportionately, and age of symptom onset spanned a large range with a median of 40 years. The most common clinical and radiologic presentation was optic neuritis followed by transverse myelitis and brainstem symptoms/lesions. IV methylprednisolone was used in the vast majority of cases for acute treatment. 83.3% of our patients were treated with chronic therapy at some point during their disease course. Therapies include rituximab, IVIG, ocrelizumab, mycophenolate mofetil and ofatumumab. The majority of our patients were treated with rituximab and we did not see a significant benefit of yearly relapse reduction for rituximab versus other therapies. Our cohort had a higher-than- expected percentage of cases with relapsing disease (56.3%) compared to monophasic (43.8%).

Discussion/conclusion

Our study confirms prior data regarding the demographics, clinical presentation and radiologic presentation of MOGAD. There is no consensus on whether maintenance therapy should be started for MOGAD cases with a single clinical event. Our cohort showed a higher relapse rate than has been reported previously and all known relapses occurred within one year of diagnosis. More data is necessary to confirm risk of relapse in the years following diagnosis. In addition, further data on biomarkers are needed to predict the disease course could help guide management.

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Citation

Published Version (Please cite this version)

10.1016/j.jneuroim.2022.577987

Publication Info

Sutton, Paige, Michael W Lutz, F Lee Hartsell, Dorlan Kimbrough, N Troy Tagg, Mark Skeen, Nicholas M Hudak, Christopher Eckstein, et al. (2022). Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: Presentation and outcomes of adults at a single center. Journal of neuroimmunology, 373. p. 577987. 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2022.577987 Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10161/26147.

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