Large-area nanopatterning of self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates by interferometric lithography.

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We demonstrate that interferometric lithography provides a fast, simple approach to the production of patterns in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with high resolution over square centimeter areas. As a proof of principle, two-beam interference patterns, formed using light from a frequency-doubled argon ion laser (244 nm), were used to pattern methyl-terminated SAMs on gold, facilitating the introduction of hydroxyl-terminated adsorbates and yielding patterns of surface free energy with a pitch of ca. 200 nm. The photopatterning of SAMs on Pd has been demonstrated for the first time, with interferometric exposure yielding patterns of surface free energy with similar features sizes to those obtained on gold. Gold nanostructures were formed by exposing SAMs to UV interference patterns and then immersing the samples in an ethanolic solution of mercaptoethylamine, which etched the metal substrate in exposed areas while unoxidized thiols acted as a resist and protected the metal from dissolution. Macroscopically extended gold nanowires were fabricated using single exposures and arrays of 66 nm gold dots at 180 nm centers were formed using orthogonal exposures in a fast, simple process. Exposure of oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAMs to UV light caused photodegradation of the protein-resistant tail groups in a substrate-independent process. In contrast to many protein patterning methods, which utilize multiple steps to control surface binding, this single step process introduced aldehyde functional groups to the SAM surface at exposures as low as 0.3 J cm(-2), significantly less than the exposure required for oxidation of the thiol headgroup. Although interferometric methods rely upon a continuous gradient of exposure, it was possible to fabricate well-defined protein nanostructures by the introduction of aldehyde groups and removal of protein resistance in nanoscopic regions. Macroscopically extended, nanostructured assemblies of streptavidin were formed. Retention of functionality in the patterned materials was demonstrated by binding of biotinylated proteins.





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Adams, J, G Tizazu, Stefan Janusz, SRJ Brueck, GP Lopez and GJ Leggett (2010). Large-area nanopatterning of self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiolates by interferometric lithography. Langmuir, 26(16). pp. 13600–13606. 10.1021/la101876j Retrieved from

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Gabriel P. Lopez

Adjunct Professor of Biomedical Engineering

My primary professional interests lie in research and education in biomaterials science and engineering, bioanalytical chemistry and biointerfacial phenomena. These areas are generally populated by researchers with formal training in biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, biology and physics, and as such are inherently interdisciplinary and highly collaborative in nature. Our research group has worked to address problems across a number of fields. Highlights include:

Bioinspired and Biomimetic Materials. We have developed several intelligent materials systems that are capable of biospecific molecular recognition and transduction of molecular signals to macroscopically observable responses. These materials are finding application in areas such as diagnostics, environmental monitoring and drug discovery. We have also developed biomimetic membrane materials that have functional hallmarks of biological membranes but that are robust enough to incorporate into manufacturable devices.

Biosensing and Diagnostic Systems. We have developed methods and instrumentation suited for making measurements on arrays of biospecific and cross-reactive sensors. Systems have spanned refractometric, fluorometric, electrochemical and colorimetric transduction methods. This comprehensive suite of methodologies brings substantial power to designing biosensing systems for particular applications, and to benchmarking the performance of new methodologies.

Control of Microbial Interactions with Materials. We were among the first to establish principles for formation of fouling resistant surfaces and stimuli-responsive surfaces that could be used for rapid and efficient release of microbial biofilms.

Analytical Bioseparations. We have demonstrated facile methods for the manufacture of integrated nanofluidic systems that allow controllable sample introduction and highly efficient separation using new methodologies such as nanoelectroosmosis.

Each of these general areas of research remains ripe for new discoveries and innovations. The research environment offered by Duke University and its surroundings provides fertile grounds for continued development in each of these areas, as well as their direct application to specific biological, biotechnological and medical problems.

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